The hippocampus has long been considered the central hub of all memory, and therefore responsible for a large majority of learning. Located in the ventral-medial temporal area of the brain, its importance regarding the consolidation of new memories, and thus the learning of new things, was demonstrated by the infamous case of HM (patient), a man who had both medial temporal regions of his brain removed. This resulted in his inability to form new long-term memories.
Long term potentiation: first stage. A synapse is repeatedly stimulated, sending neurotransmitters from the axon terminal (left) across the synapse to the dendrites of a second neuron (right).