Brain-Mapping Methods

  1. A lesion is any abnormality or damage in the tissue of an organism usually caused by disease or trauma.
  3. Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain. It is typically noninvasive, with the electrodes placed along the scalp, although invasive electrodes are sometimes used in specific applications.
  5. A computed tomography (CT) scan makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of specific areas of a scanned object.
    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (schematic diagram)

    Computed tomography of human brain, from base of the skull to top.

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (schematic diagram)

    MRI image of white matter tracts.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique using magnetic fields and radio waves to form images of the body.
    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (schematic diagram)

    PET scan of the human brain.

  9. Positron emission tomography (PET) produces a three-dimensional image of functional processes in the body. The system detects pairs of gamma rays emitted indirectly by a positron-emitting radionuclide (tracer) introduced into the body on a biologically active molecule.
  11. Functional MRI (fMRI) is a neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow. This technique relies on the fact that cerebral blood flow and neuronal activation are coupled.
    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (schematic diagram)

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (schematic diagram).

  13. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is used to stimulate small regions of the brain. A magnetic field generator is placed near the head of the person receiving the treatment which produces small electric currents in the region of the brain just under the coil.
  15. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a functional neuroimaging technique for mapping brain activity by recording magnetic fields produced by electrical currents occurring naturally in the brain, using very sensitive magnetometers.