Protium, the most common isotope of hydrogen, has one proton and one electron.

As we think about the fundamental forces in the context of mechanics, previewing gravitation and electromagnetism at this stage of the course, there is something else I want you to keep in mind. This is important so grip down and pay attention. The point I want to make is that the chemical properties of substances are in large part determined by electric forces: between nuclei and electrons within atoms, between atoms in chemical bonds, and between molecules governing intermolecular force.

In other words, the basic Physics in Mechanics and Electricity underlie Chemistry. While not forgetting that quantum electrodynamics is necessary for a fuller picture, much insight can still be gained by looking at the atom as a simple electrical system. In other words, as we move through Electricity in a few modules, keep in mind that you are gathering concepts that will help you understand Chemistry.

Electricity binds electrons in orbit to the nuclei of a single atom, and electricity binds atoms together in chemical bonds. Panning back the view further, electricity binds molecules together through intermolecular force. Electricity is the primary force determining chemical behavior. Help your basic understanding with the classical model and then keep in mind where the quantum model corrects the picture.