Module 13

Main Progression - Gene Expression, Cellular Reproduction, Mendelian Genetics, Recombination & Mutation, The Molecular Biology Laboratory, and Human Genetics

Review & Preview - In module 14 we have a practice test. This week, aim for solid, basic comprehensive fluency in Biology.

Knowledge Mapping - Extend the understanding of biomolecules into their behaviors within the molecular biology systematics of gene expression.

Verbal Reasoning and Essay - Continuing the regimin of reading program, exercise, and writing assignment.

Main Progression

Assignments


Read the Gene Expression chapter in the MCAT Primer with your question slider. Take your time to look carefully at the figures in the margins. Make sure you can answer all Level 2 questions. Study the more difficult terms as well, which can appear in MCAT passages. Strong vocabulary in molecular biology is essential on the new MCAT.
Check your mastery of the vocabulary of Gene Expression with a drill up to Level 3 at the Question Server, and then try to perform the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle without pausing. Click here for the Solution to the crossword.
Read pp. 25-36 and 38-43 in ExamKrackers Biology. Perform the questions on p. 37 and 44.
Review the Gene Expression external resources for each of the subtopics within the Learning Center. Kimball's biology pages are really good for Gene Expression.

Activate      

Goals


Understand the central dogma of molecular biology.
Be able to outline the steps of gene transcription including the role of transcription factors, RNA polymerase, and protein factors involved in nucleosome modification.
Be prepared to describe in some detail the types of RNA synthesized in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells including mRNA, rRNA, tRNA, snRNA, snoRNA, and miRNA.
Have at least a general comprehension of the different types of RNA polymerase.
Be able to describe the steps of RNA processing in eukaryotes from pre-mRNA to mRNA from synthesis of the cap, removal of introns, splicing of exons, and synthesis of the polyA tail.
Comprehend the processes and significance of alternative splicing.
Describe the architecture of tRNA and its role in the process of translation.
Be able to describe the functions of the codon AUG in starting translation and the functions of the stop codons UAA, UAG, and UGA.
Have a detailed, descriptive understanding of the steps of translation from initiation to elongation and termination.
Be able to distinguish bacterial forms of regulation of gene expression from eukaryotic regulation of gene expression.
Be able to describe the structure and significance of the Lac operon and tryptophan operon in gene expression of many bacteria.
Have at least familiarity with the basics of transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and translational regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes.

Activate      



Assignments


Read the Cellular Reproduction chapter in MCAT Primer with your question slider. Take your time to look carefully at the figures in the margins. Make sure you can answer all Level 2 questions. Study the more difficult terms as well, which can appear in MCAT passages. Strong vocabulary in molecular biology is essential on the new MCAT.
Check your mastery of the vocabulary of Cellular Reproduction with a drill up to Level 3 at the Question Server, and then try to perform the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle without pausing. Click here for the Solution to the crossword.
Read pp. 27-28 and 45-50 in ExamKrackers Biology. Perform the questions on p. 51.
Review the Cellular Reproduction external resources for each of the subtopics within the Learning Center.

Activate      

Goals


Understand the functions of the enzymes primase, helicase, DNA polymerase and DNA ligase in DNA replication.
Imagine a clear mental image of the replication fork and comprehend the distinction between the leading strand and the lagging strand.
Be able to describe positive and negative control mechanisms in eukaryotic DNA replication.
Possess familiarity with the process of post-replicative modification of DNA by methylation.
Be able to narrate the processes of prokaryotic cell division.
Have a thorough understanding of the stages of the eukaryotic cell cycle.
Understand the processes of eukaryotic cell division and specifically, be prepared to describe what occurs within each phase of mitosis.
Be capable of fluently describing the condensed eukaryotic chromosome using the terminology chromatid, chromatin, kinetocore, and centromere.
Be able to describe main features of the spindle apparatus.
Know how to distinguish meiosis and mitosis and be able to narrate meiosis.
Be able to describe how the process of crossing over occurs during meiosis and be prepared to describe how this effects the diversity of genomes in offspring.

Activate      



Assignments


Get yourself oriented by working through the Mendelian Genetics chapter in the MCAT Primer with your question slider. Take your time to look carefully at the figures in the margins. Make sure you can answer all Level 2 questions. Study the more difficult terms as well, which can appear in MCAT passages. Strong vocabulary in genetics is essential on the new MCAT.
Read pp 173-175 in ExamKrackers Biology. Perform the questions on pg 176.
Check your mastery of the vocabulary of Mendelian Genetics with a drill up to Level 3 at the Question Server, and then try to perform the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle without pausing. Click here for the Solution to the crossword.
Review the Mendelian Genetics resources for each of the subtopics within the Learning Center.

Activate      

Goals


Be able to summarize the key findings in the work of Mendel.
Become fluent in Mendelís nomenclature including monohybrid and dihybrid cross as well as P1, F1, and F2 generation.
Know how to construct and interpret Punnet squares for monohybrid and dihybrid crosses.
Be able to describe how Mendelís work led to the understanding of the distinction between phenotype and genotype.
Be able to recount Mendelís reasoning in arriving at the Principle of Segregation and the Principle of Independent Assortment.
Understand how to construct and interpret a test cross.
Know how to interpret pedigrees.
Be prepared to interpret the exceptions to Mendelís rules that have been illustrated in modern genetics.
Comprehend the various relationships of dominance between alleles for the same gene including complete dominance, incomplete dominance, and codominance. Be aware of sex linked traits and multiple allelic series.
Understand phenomena deriving from interactions among genes including epistasis and pleiotropy.

Activate      



Assignments


Get yourself oriented by working through the Genetic Recombination & Mutation chapter in the MCAT Primer with your question slider. Take your time to look carefully at the figures in the margins. Make sure you can answer all Level 2 questions. Study the more difficult terms as well, which can appear in MCAT passages. Strong vocabulary in molecular biology is essential on the new MCAT.
Check your mastery of the vocabulary of Genetic Recombination & Mutation with a drill up to Level 3 at the Question Server, and then try to perform the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle without pausing. Click here for the Solution to the crossword.
Review the Genetic Recombination resources for each of the subtopics within the Learning Center.

Activate      

Goals


Be able to reproduce a clear, concise definition of genetic recombination and designate the primary contexts in vivo and in vitro.
Be prepared to describe chromosomal crossing over and comprehend the different kinds of crossing over events which may occur.
With homologous recombination understand why recombination frequencies are proportional to the distance between markers and why co-inheritance frequency is inversely proportional to the distance.
Distinguish gene conversion from chromosomal crossing over.
Have a basic familiarity with the nonhomologous end-joining mechanism for DNA repair.
Understand how recombination between two regions on a single dsDNA molecule may result in the intermediate region looping out as circular dsDNA.
Be familiar with the various kinds of mobile genetic elements including transposons, plasmids, bacteriophage DNA, and group II introns.
Be able to narrate the events of bacterial conjugation, transduction, and transformation (transfection with eukaryotes).
Know how mutations are distinguished by their effect on structure, ie. small scale mutations (point mutations, insertions, deletions) and large scale mutations (amplifications, chromosomal translocations, chromosomal inversions, how they are distinguished by their effect on function, ie. amorphic, neomorphic, or antimorphic, and how mutations are distinguished by their effect on protein sequence, ie. frameshift, missense, nonsense, or silent.
Know the causes of mutations including examples of different kinds of spontaneous mutations and examples induced by mutagens.

Activate      



Assignments


Work through the Molecular Biology Laboratory chapter in the MCAT Primer with your question slider. Take your time to look carefully at the figures in the margins. Make sure you can answer all Level 2 questions. Study the more difficult terms as well, which can appear in MCAT passages.
Check your mastery of the vocabulary of the Molecular Biology Laboratory with a drill up to Level 3 at the Question Server, and then try to perform the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle without pausing. Click here for the Solution to the crossword.
Read pp. 97-99 in ExamKrackers Biology. Perform the questions on p. 100, which also contain information on spectroscopy.
Take a review tour of the Molecular Biology Laboratory resources in the Learning Center.

Activate      

Goals


Have a working familiarity with the fundamental separation techniques used in genomics and proteomics laboratories including electrophoresis, chromatography, and centrifugation.
Be able to summarize the basic principles involved in the techniques for sequencing of DNA (especially Sanger) and protein sequencing (especially Edman).
Gain a working familiarity PCR technique, enough to explain the basic method.
Have enough of a comfort level to be prepared for passages involving molecular biology techniques which the MCAT wonít assume prior knowledge but will often present in passages such as S1 mapping, Dnase footprinting, or mobility shift assay, for example.
Master a working familiarity with recombinant DNA technology including the purpose of restriction endonucleases, the variety of vectors available, cloning, and libraries.

Activate      



Assignments


Work through the Human Genetics chapter in the MCAT Primer with your question slider. Take your time to look carefully at the figures in the margins. Make sure you can answer all Level 2 questions. Study the more difficult terms as well, which can appear in MCAT passages.
Check your mastery of the vocabulary of Human Genetics with a drill up to Level 3 at the Question Server, and then try to perform the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle without pausing. Click here for the Solution to the crossword.
Take a review tour of the Human Genetics resources in the Learning Center. The University of Arizona Biology Project site provides an excellent MCAT level review for this area, and Kimball's Biology Pages are good too, as usual.

Activate      

Goals


Know how to apply Mendelian concepts to human genetics including interpreting a pedigree chart for patterns of inheritance as well as sex-linked traits.
Be familiar with the procedures involved in human karyotyping.
Be able to describe the basis of techniques based on RFLP analysis including screening and fingerprinting.
Be prepared to describe the karyotype and symptoms associated with the most prominent human chromosomal, allelic (autosomal), and sex-linked genetic abnormalities.
Understand the process of X-chromosome inactivation (Barr bodies).

Activate      



 

Review & Preview

Assignments


As with Physics & General Chemistry in Module 11, Organic Chemistry in Module 12, in Module 13 make a comprehensive in depth study of ExamKrackers in the area of Biology. Take at least a third of your study time this module preparing for the practice test in Module 14. Aim to know how every page looks, the images, the formulas, the bold headings, and the conceptual discussions. Study every conceptual chapter in ExamKrackers Biology and try to complete every 30 minute in-class exam in the book as you go. This is a lot of work, but if you cram now, you won't have to later.

Activate      

Goals


Ensure comfort with the basic factual knowledge in Biology from macromolecules to cells and tissues all the way to the organ systems of human physiology.
Understand the areas of Biology in which you may have of weak factual recall in order to establish the conditions for improvement.

Activate      



 

Knowledge Mapping

Assignments


Read the Coaching Discussions associated with the Main Sequence topics of the Gene Expression, Cellular Reproduction, Mendelian Genetics, Recombination & Mutation, The Molecular Biology Laboratory, and Human Genetics. Start HERE and proceed by clicking the right arrow.

Activate      

Goals


Be able to describe integration of biochemistry and molecular biology at the fundamental metabolic level in which phosphoryl transfer provides the thermodynamic potential for transcription and translation along pathways provided by protein enzyme activity.
Be able map your understanding of eukaryotic cellular structure onto the molecular processes of transcription and translation in gene expression.
Be prepared to apply examples from the human endocrine system to the discussion of the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression.
Be able to apply physical science perspectives within the context of the molecular biology laboratory.

Activate      



 

Verbal Reasoning

Assignments


Revisit the WikiPremed treatment of Verbal Reasoning on the MCAT.
Perform Passages 1-10 in ExamKrackers 101 Passages in MCAT Verbal Reasoning.
Go through the test you completed. Label every question by type in the margin: Main Idea, Author's Tone, Thematic Extension, Specific Inference, or Facts & Information. Which types seem to be giving the most problems? In the ones you missed, how do your chosen answers differ from the correct answers?

Activate      

Goals


Remember the five main types of Verbal Reasoning questions.

Main Idea

Author's Tone

Thematic Extension

Specific Inference

Facts & Information

Verbal Reasoning Tip of the Week
Watch out for wrong answers designed to entice you to answer what your own opinion is instead of the author's. The question prompt will not say, 'according to you'. It will say, 'according to the author'.

Activate      



 

Essay

Assignments


Read the WikiPremed guide to Writing the MCAT Essay.
Arrange an undisturbed half hour to write an essay. Click Here for your essay topic for module seveb. Don't advance to page 2 until you are ready to begin writing.

Activate      

Goals


Focus on how to lean a bit towards either the first or the second essay task to give your essay dynamism and unity.

Activate      









MECHANICS & WAVES
MCAT course 
syllabus module 1
Kinematics
Newton's Laws
Work, Energy, & Power
Momentum & Impulse
MCAT course syllabus module 2
Rotation  
Harmonic Motion
Elastic Properties of Solids
Fluid Mechanics
Waves
FUNDAMENTAL FORCES
MCAT course syllabus module 3
Gravitation
Electricity
THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER
MCAT course 
syllabus module 4
Atomic Theory
Periodic Properties
The Chemical Bond
Intermolecular Forces
MCAT course syllabus module 5
Functional Groups
Stereochemistry
THERMODYNAMICS & KINETICS
MCAT course syllabus module 6
Temperature & Heat Flow
Ideal Gas & Kinetic Theory
1st Law of Thermodynamics
Stoichiometry
Thermochemistry
MCAT course syllabus module 7
2nd Law & Heat Engines
Chemical Thermodynamics
The States of Matter
Orgo Physical Properties
Chemical Kinetics
AQUEOUS SYSTEMS
MCAT course syllabus module 8
Water
Solutions
Acids & Bases
Organic Acids & Bases
ORGANIC REACTION CHEMISTRY
MCAT course syllabus module 9
Nucleophiles & Electrophiles
Rearrangements
Radical Intermediates
Conjugation & Aromaticity
Alkanes
Alkenes  optional
Alkynes  optional
Alkyl Halides
Allylic Conjugation
Aromatic Compounds  optional
Alcohols & Ethers
Aldehydes & Ketones
Carboxylic Acids
Amines
Phosphorus Compounds
Sulfur Compounds
MCAT course 
syllabus module 10Overall Review
BIOMOLECULES
MCAT course syllabus module 11
Proteins
Carbohydrates
Nucleic Acids
Lipids
THE CELL
Biological Membranes
The Prokaryotic Cell
The Eukaryotic Cell
BIOENERGETICS & BIOSYNTHESIS
MCAT course syllabus module 12
Coordination Chemistry
Oxidation/Reduction
Redox in Organic Chemistry
Electrochemistry
Cellular Respiration
Photosynthesis  optional
Integration of Metabolism
GENETICS & REPRODUCTION
MCAT course syllabus module 13
Gene Expression
Cellular Reproduction
Mendelian Genetics
Recombination & Mutation
Molecular Biology Lab
Human Genetics
DIVERSITY OF LIFE
MCAT course syllabus module 14
Viruses
Bacteria & Archaea
Protista  taxonomy optional
Fungi
Plants  optional
Animals  taxonomy optional
Embryology
MCAT course 
syllabus module 15
Tissues & Histology
HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
Nervous System
Sensory Systems
Endocrine System
Musculoskeletal System
Cardiovascular System
Blood
Respiratory System
Lymphatic System & Immunity
Urinary System
Digestive System
Reproductive System
POPULATION BIOLOGY
MCAT course syllabus module 16
Evolution
Ecology
ELECTROMAGNETISM, LIGHT, & MODERN PHYSICS
MCAT course syllabus module 17
Electricity
DC Current
Magnetism
Electomagnetic Induction
AC Current
MCAT course syllabus module 18
Properties of Light
Geometric Optics
Wave Optics
MCAT course syllabus module 19
Modern Physics  relativity optional
Molecular Spectroscopy
Nuclear Physics
MCAT course 
syllabus module 20Overall Review
The WikiPremed MCAT Course is a free comprehensive course in the undergraduate level general sciences. Undergraduate level physics, chemistry, organic chemistry and biology are presented by this course as a unified whole within a spiraling curriculum.

Please read our policies on privacy and shipping & returns.  Contact Us.
MCAT is a registered trademark of the Association of American Medical Colleges, which does not endorse the WikiPremed Course.

WikiPremed offers the customers of our publications or our teaching services no guarantees regarding eventual performance on the MCAT.


Creative Commons License
WikiPremed is a trademark of Wisebridge Learning Systems LLC. The work of WikiPremed is published under a Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 License. There are elements of work here, such as a subset of the images in the archive from WikiPedia, that originated as GNU General Public License works, so take care to follow the unique stipulations of that license in printed reproductions. You can use the resources here for commercial or non-commercial purposes, but please give attribution and a link to the production credits and edit history of the resource. For the works here which began as my individual work, please attribute "John Wetzel, an author at wikipremed.com". *