Blood is a constantly circulating fluid in the body that carries substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports waste products away. Blood is composed of formed elements (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets) suspended in blood plasma, which contains 7% proteins and 93% water with dissolved minerals, nutrients, and wastes. The physiology of blood involves discussion of a variety of subjects including the production and degradation of blood cells, oxygen transport, carbon dioxide transport, thermoregulation and pH balance.
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Conceptual Vocabulary for Blood
Blood is a specialized biological fluid consisting of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes suspended in a complex fluid medium known as plasma.
Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended.
Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and the body's principal means of delivering oxygen from the lungs to body tissues via the blood.
Platelets or thrombocytes are the cell fragments circulating in the blood involved in the cellular mechanisms of primary hemostasis leading to the formation of blood clots.
Hemoglobin is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in red blood cells.
Carbonic anhydrase is a family of metalloenzymes that catalyze the rapid conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons.
The ABO blood group system is the most important blood type system (or blood group system) in human blood transfusion.
Human serum albumin is the most abundant protein in human blood plasma.
The Bohr effect states that in the presence of carbon dioxide, the oxygen affinity of respiratory pigments such as hemoglobin decreases.
Coagulation is a complex process by which blood forms solid clots.
Fibrin is a protein involved in the clotting of blood which is polymerised to form a mesh that forms a hemostatic plug or clot over a wound site.
Thrombin is a serine protease that converts soluble fibrinogen into insoluble strands of fibrin, as well as catalyzing many other coagulation-related reactions.
Plasmin is an important enzyme present in blood that degrades many blood plasma proteins, most notably fibrin clots.
Sickle-cell disease is a group of genetic disorders caused by an abnormal form of hemoglobin.
Hemophilia is the name of a family of hereditary genetic illnesses that impair the body's ability to control coagulation.
Globulin is one of the two types of serum proteins, the other being albumin. This term encompasses a heterogeneous series of families of proteins.
A heme is a prosthetic group that consists of an iron atom contained in the center of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin.
A porphyrin is a heterocyclic macrocycle derived from four pyrrole-like subunits interconnected via their alpha carbon atoms.
The Haldane effect is a property of hemoglobin that leads to deoxygenated blood's increased ability to carry carbon dioxide.
2,3-Bisphosphoglycerate is a three carbon compound whose binding to partially deoxygenated hemoglobin allosterically upregulates the release of the remaining oxygen molecules bound to the hemoglobin.
Chloride shift is a process which occurs in a cardiovascular system and refers to the exchange of bicarbonate and chloride across the membrane of red blood cells.
Erythropoiesis is the process by which red blood cells are produced.
The Rhesus blood group system refers to the five main Rh antigens (C, c, D, E and e) as well as the many other less frequent Rh antigens.
Gamma globulins, or Ig's, are a prominent type are immunoglobulins.
Cooperative binding is exhibited by a macromolecule if its affinity for a ligand increases with the amount of ligand already bound.
The oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve plots on the vertical axis the proportion of haemoglobin in its saturated form against the prevailing oxygen tension on the horizontal axis.
Hematopoiesis is the formation of blood cellular components.
Hemostasis refers to a process whereby bleeding is halted.
Fibrinolysis is the process where a fibrin clot, the product of coagulation, is broken down.
Carboxyhemoglobin is a stable complex of carbon monoxide and hemoglobin that forms in red blood cells when carbon monoxide is inhaled.
Fetal hemoglobin is the main oxygen transport protein in the fetus during the last seven months of development in the uterus.
Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells, typically composing about 1% of the red cells in the human body.
Prothrombinase is the protein complex for the conversion of prothrombin into thrombin consisting of negatively charged phosphatidylserine, prothrombin, and Factors Va and Xa.
Fibronectin is a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein containing about 5% carbohydrate that binds to membrane spanning receptor proteins called integrins as well as extracellular matrix components.
A macroglobulin is a plasma globulin of high molecular weight.
Oncotic pressure is the difference between the colloidal osmotic pressure exerted by blood plasma proteins and that exerted by tissue fluid proteins.
Tissue factor, also called thromboplastin, factor III or CD142, is a protein present in subendothelial tissue, platelets, and leukocytes necessary for the initiation of thrombin formation from the zymogen prothrombin.
The globin fold is a common three-dimensional fold in proteins typically consisting of eight alpha helices, although some proteins have additional helix extensions at their termini.
Methemoglobin is a form of the oxygen-carrying protein hemoglobin, in which the iron in the heme group is in the Fe3+ state instead of the Fe2+ of normal hemoglobin.
The term alpha granules is used to describe granules within platelets containing several growth factors, platelet factor 4, which is a heparin-binding chemokine, and other clotting proteins.
Methemoglobin reductase is an enzyme which converts methemoglobin to hemoglobin.
Protein C is a major physiological anticoagulant, a vitamin K-dependent serine protease that is activated by thrombin to degrade Factor Va and Factor VIIIa (with protein S as a cofactor).
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