External Resourses

Chem1 Virtual Textbook - The direction of spontaneous change

Outstanding overview of the conceptual heart of Chemical Thermodynamics.

Chem1 Virtual Textbook - Chemical Energetics

Truly excellent survey of Thermochemistry. Before going deeper into Chemical Thermodynamics and Equilibrium, first make sure you understand Internal Energy change and Enthalpy change, the heart of Thermochemistry. A good understanding of Thermochemistry and Chemical Thermodynamics will make Biochemistry much easier and much more interesting.

Purdue University - Gas-Phase Reactions

This discussion of gas-phase reactions provides a very good pathway to understanding how reactions progress towards the equilibrium state.

















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