Module 15

Main Progression - Mammalian Tissues and Histology, The Nervous System, Sensory Systems, The Endocrine System, The Musculoskeletal System, The Cardiovascular System, Blood, The Respiratory System, The Lymphatic System and Immunity, The Urinary System, The Digestive System and Nutrition, and The Reproductive System

Review & Preview - Study for your next practice test in Module 16.

Knowledge Mapping - Integrate physiology with the rest of science.

Verbal Reasoning and Essay - Continuing the regimin of reading program, exercise, and writing assignment.

Main Progression

Assignments


Read the Mammalian Tissues and Histology chapter in the MCAT Primer with your question slider. Take your time to look carefully at the figures in the margins. Make sure you can answer all Level 2 questions. Study the more difficult terms as well, which can appear in MCAT passages.
Check your mastery of the vocabulary of Mammalian Tissues and Histology with a drill of Levels 1,2, and 3 at the Question Server, and then try to perform the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle without pausing. Click here for the Solution to the crossword.
Read pp. 79-80 in ExamKrackers Biology.
Review the Mammalian Tissues and Histology external resources for each of the subtopics within the Learning Center.

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Goals


Understand how the major types of animal tissue are distinguished and characterized.
Be prepared to describe epithelial tissue in general and distinguish the different types of epithelial tissue.
Understand the derivation of the different types of epithelial tissue from the primary germ line tissues.
Be familiar with the contexts of connective tissue fitting the definition of this type of tissue as living cells within a non-living matrix.
Have a working familiarity with the standard paraffin technique of tissue processing from fixation, clearing, embedding, sectioning, and staining.
Be familiar with hematoxylin and eosin staining and understand the meaning of the terms basophilic and acidophilic in this context.

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Assignments


Browse the images and study the Nervous System vocabulary (at least through Level 3) in the MCAT Primer. Conceptual vocabulary is crucial in these physiology sections. Use the question mask for a final drill and then test yourself on the basic terms with the Crossword Puzzle. Here is the Solution. You can also work on the vocabulary online at the Question Server.
Read pp 82-90 in ExamKrackers Biology. Perform the questions on pg 91. Read pp 92-95.
Take a thorough review tour of the Nervous System external resources in the Learning Center. Kimball's Biology Pages are excellent for MCAT preparation in the physiological systems.
Complete the Advanced Crossword Puzzle for the Nervous System. Mastering a large vocabulary in physiology is an important objective in MCAT preparation. Here is the Solution.

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Goals


Be prepared to describe the structure of neurons.
Possess a thorough understanding of of the fundamentals of nerve impulse transmission.
Be able to describe impulse transmission in a myelinated neuron.
Understand the sequence of events producing the release of neurotransmitter at a symapse.
Know how excitatory and inhibitory synapses are distinguished both in terms of the neurotransmitters employed and the mechanisms of action.
Undestand how signal integration occurs in determining whether an action potential will be generated for neurons with multiple neurons synapsing on them.
Be familiar with the various types of glial cells and their functions.
Possess a solid understanding of the fundamentals of organization of the human central and peripheral nervous systems.
Be able to distinguish the structure, mechanisms and functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system.
Be able to describe the basic anatomy of the brain and spinal cord.
Be prepared to narrate the events of a reflex arc.

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Assignments


With the detailed, factual topics in Biology, the work with the MCAT Primer is very important. Browse the images and study the Sensory System vocabulary (at least through Level 3) in the MCAT Primer. Use the question mask for a final drill and then test yourself on the basic terms with the Crossword Puzzle. Here is the Solution. You can also work on the vocabulary online at the Question Server.
Read pp. 96-99 in ExamKrackers Biology. Perform the questions in pg. 100, which also include questions on the structure of the Nervous System.
Take a thorough review tour of the Sensory Systems external resources in the Learning Center. Kimball's Biology Pages are excellent for Sensory Systems as usual.
Complete the Advanced Crossword Puzzle for the Sensory Systems. Here is the Solution.

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Goals


Have a general understanding of how sensory receptors work and the different basic types.
Be familiar with the mechanisms of taste and smell as well as the variety of sensory receptors found in the skin.
Be able to describe the anatomy of the outer, middle, and inner ear.
Be prepared to recount the earís mechanism of operation in sensing sound.
Understand how the vestibule and semi-circular canals within the inner ear detect motion and position of the body with respect to gravity.
Possess a detailed understanding of the anatomy of the eye.
Be able to apply your understanding of lenses to interpreting the path of light and the image formed on the retina of the eye.
Understand the causes of farsightedness and nearsightedness.
Be familiar with the different types of light-sensitive receptors found in the retina and how physical changes in photopigments within them trigger the chain of events leading to the pattern of impulses transmitted by the optic nerve.

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Assignments


Browse the images and study the Endocrine System vocabulary (at least through Level 3) in the MCAT Primer. Use the question mask for a final drill and then test yourself on the basic terms with the Crossword Puzzle. Here is the Solution. You can also work on the vocabulary online at the Question Server.
Read pp 101-103 in ExamKrackers Biology. Perform the questions on pg 104. Read pp 105-109 and perform the questions on pg 110. Study the chart on pg 117.
Take a thorough review tour of the Endocrine System external resources in the Learning Center. This is high priority MCAT material. Repetition is good.
Complete the Advanced Crossword Puzzle for the Endocrine System. Here is the Solution.

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Goals


Understand the distinction between endocrine and exocrine glands.
Know the structural categories of hormones.
Know which glands secrete steroid hormones, their basic structure, and the generic mode of action within the target cell.
Be able to distinguish which hormones are peptides and which are the tyrosine derived amine hormones.
Be familiar with how the endocrine system employs cycles and negative feedback to regulate the secretion of most hormones.
Understand the difference in what occurs when a nonsteroid hormone reaches the target cell membrane as opposed to a steroid hormone.
Recognize the most common second messenger systems and be able to narrate the events of the classic examples, especially the hormone receptor, G-protein, adenylate cyclase system.
Be able to describe what occurs with steroid hormones after they enter the cell.
Be prepared to name the hormones, their functions and their mechanisms of the endocrine glands including pineal, hypothalamus, posterior pituitary, anterior pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, heart, kidneys, pancreas, stomach, small intestine, ovary, and testes.
Have a thorough understanding of the anatomical distinction between the anterior and posterior pituitary glands and their different mechanisms of hormone production and release.
Understand the structure of the adrenal gland and how that relates to the different hormones it produces.

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Assignments


Browse the images and study the Musculoskeletal System vocabulary (at least through Level 3) in the MCAT Primer. I cannot stress enough how important it is to master the vocabulary in the physiology chapters for the exam. Use the question mask for a final drill and then test yourself on the basic terms with the Crossword Puzzle. Here is the Solution. You can also work on the vocabulary online at the Question Server.
Read pp 157-161 in ExamKrackers Biology. Perform the questions on pg 162. Read pp 163-164 and perform the questions on pg 165. Read pp 166-170 and perform the questions on pg 171.
Take a review tour of the Musculoskeletal system resources in the Learning Center. Although Kimball's Biology Pages are great, as usual, be sure to pay attention to the power stroke mechanism in the Online Biology Book as well. That is important material.
Complete the Advanced Crossword Puzzle for the Musculoskeletal System. Here is the Solution.

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Goals


Possess a thorough understanding of the structure of skeletal muscle fibers and myofibrils.
Be prepared to describe what occurs as the thin and thick filaments of a myofibril slide over one another in muscle contraction in terms of changes in A band, I band, H zone, M line, and Z disc.
Understand the protein components of myofibrils and how they work together in the sliding filament model of muscle contraction.
Be familiar with how a nerve impulse at the neuromuscular junction triggers muscle contraction through coupling by calcium ion release from T tubules within the muscle fiber.
Be ready to describe the alternative pools of high energy phosphate in skeletal muscle which maintain a ready supply of ATP for contraction. Understand the concept of oxygen debt.
Be able to compare and contrast the structure of cardiac muscle cells with skeletal muscle fibers.
Understand where you will find smooth muscle in the body and be able to describe the mechanisms by which contraction is triggered.
Have a good basic understanding of the structural components of long bone.
Be familiar with the mechanisms of osteoclasts and osteoblasts in bone remodeling and understand the mechanisms of the various hormones that affect bone.

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Assignments


Browse the images and study the Cardiovascular System vocabulary (at least through Level 3) in the MCAT Primer. Use the question mask for a final drill and then test yourself on the basic terms with the Crossword Puzzle. Here is the Solution. You can also work on the vocabulary online at the Question Server.
Read pp 139-143 in ExamKrackers Biology. Perform the questions on pg 144.
Take a review tour of the Cardiovascular system resources in the Learning Center.
Complete the Advanced Crossword Puzzle for the Cardiovascular System. Here is the Solution.

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Goals


Understand the general anatomy of the human circulatory system including the heart, coronary circulation, systemic circulation, pulmonary system, and hepatic portal system.
Be able to distinguish atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis.
Have a firm conceptual and anatomical vocabulary for describing the heartbeat.
Be prepared to interpret a normal electrocardiogram (EKG).
Be able to describe auxiliary control of the heart rate.
Be familiar with the blood pressure and its variation spatially within the circulatory system and temporally during the cardiac cycle.
Know how blood pressure is regulated by hormones of the heart and kidneys.
Have comfort in working with problems dealing with the pressure relationships between the osmotic pressure and blood pressure in capillary beds.

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Assignments


Browse the images and study the vocabulary for Blood in your MCAT Primer (at least through level 3). Use the question mask for a final drill and then test yourself on the basic terms with the Crossword Puzzle. Here is the Solution. Try to finish it in one sitting. You can also work on the vocabulary online at the Question Server.
Read pp 150-155 in ExamKrackers Biology. Perform the questions on pg 156. (combined assignment with Lymphatic System and Immunity)
Take a review tour of the resources dealing with the topic of Blood in the Learning Center.
Complete the Advanced Crossword Puzzle for Blood. Here is the Solution.

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Goals


Be able to describe blood composition including the characteristics of plasma and the cell types and cell fragments found in the blood.
Understand the formation of formed elements in the blood from hemopoeitic stem cells in the bone marrow including the distinction between myeloid and lymphoid cell types as well as the steps of erythropoeisis.
Be aware of the factors regulating the developmental path taken by a stem cell.
Understand the structure and composition of an erythrocyte as well as its life cycle.
Be prepared to describe the structure of the hemoglobin protein and its prosthetic groups.
Have a good sense of how the heme group and the globin protein portions of hemoglobin interact in oxygen binding and dissociation.
Be familiar with how the cooperative interaction between different binding sites enhances hemoglobin as an oxygen-transport protein and how this is reflected in the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve.
Understand the roles of carbon dioxide, hydrogen ion (Bohr effect), chloride ion (chloride shift), and 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate as regulators of the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen.
Grasp the fundamentals of carbon dioxide transport in the blood.
Be able to characterize ABO and Rh blood types; have a basic sense of the underlying genetics, and be able to describe the significance of the Rh factor in pregnancies.
Know the distribution and characteristics of leukocytes in the blood (much more in immunity).
Know how the narrate the sequence of vascular damage, platelet plug formation, and blood clotting.

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Assignments


Study the chapter on the Respiratory System in the MCAT Primer (at least through level 3). Use the question mask for a final drill and then test yourself on the basic terms with the Crossword Puzzle. Here is the Solution. You can also work on the vocabulary online at the Question Server.
Read pp 145-148 in ExamKrackers Biology. Perform the questions on pg 149.
Take a review tour of the Respiratory System resources in the Learning Center.
Complete the Advanced Crossword Puzzle for the Respiratory System. Here is the Solution.

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Goals


Possess a good understanding of the anatomical structures of the human respiratory system.
Be able to picture the functional unit of the lung comprised of bronchiole, alveoli and capillaries.
Have a clear understanding of gas exchange across capillary and alveolar walls.
Understand the mechanics of ventilation.
Be familiar with the terminology for describing lung volumes and capacities.

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Assignments


Browse the images and study the vocabulary for the Immune System in the MCAT Primer (at least through level 3). Use the question mask for a final drill and then test yourself on the basic terms with the Crossword Puzzle. Here is the Solution. Try to finish it in one sitting. You can also work on the vocabulary online at the Question Server.
Read pp 150-155 in ExamKrackers Biology. Perform the questions on pg 156. (combined assignment with Blood)
Take a review tour of the resources dealing with the topic of the Lymphatic System and Immunity in the Learning Center.
Complete the Advanced Crossword Puzzle for Blood. Here is the Solution.

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Goals


Understand the distinctions between general & specific, innate & aquired, and cell-mediated & humoral as immune system concepts.
Understand the definition of an antigen.
Be able to name the various categories and individual types of leukocytes from memory.
Be prepared to describe the anatomy and mechanics of circulation within the lymphatic system.
Grasp the roles in the lymphatic system of the bone marrow, thymus, lymph nodes, tonsils, spleen, Peyer's patches and the appendix.
Possess familiarity with the roles of skin, mucus, sebum, tears and various enzymes such as lysozyme and Rnase in nonspecific/innate defense.
Be able to describe the activities of natural killer cells.
Be able to describe the activities of neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils.
Be familiar with the reticuloendothelial system and the phagocytic nature and mechanisms of antigen presentation by macrophages and dendritic cells.
Understand how to distinguish B cells and T cells.
Understand the mechanisms of the CD (cluster of differentiation) system, MHC (major histocompatibility complex), B cell receptor, and T cell receptor in antigen presentation and recognition.
Be able to describe the model presented in clonal selection theory for how certain B and T lymphocytes are selected for proliferation.
In cell mediated immunity, be able to describe and distinguish the activities of cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells, suppressor T cells, and memory T cells.
In humoral immunity, understand the purposes of helper T cells, plasma B cells and memory B cells.
Be familiar with the structure and functions of the various classes of antibodies.
Understand the various modes of activity of the complement system including the classical pathway, membrane attack complex, and alternative pathway.
Know the features and steps of inflammation and understand how mast cells function in both innate and specific immunity.

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Assignments


Browse the images and study the Urinary System vocabulary (at least through Level 3) in the MCAT Primer. Use the question mask for a final drill and then test yourself on the basic terms with the Crossword Puzzle. Here is the Solution. You can also work on the vocabulary online at the Question Server.
Read pp 134-137 in ExamKrackers Biology. Perform the questions on pg 138.
Take a review tour of the Urinary System resources in the Learning Center.
Complete the Advanced Crossword Puzzle for the Urinary System. Here is the Solution.

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Goals


Be able to describe the main purposes of the urinary system.
Have a basic understanding of how transamination reactions as well as the alanine-glucose cyele and urea cycle enable the excretion of nitrogenous waste in mammals in the form of urea.
Be able to name the organs of the human urinary system.
Have the capability of constructing a basic anatomical drawing of the human kidney.
Be able to describe what occurs in the nephron to the filtrate as it passes from Bowmanís capsule, to the proximal convoluted tubule, the loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, and collecting duct.
Be able to describe how countercurrent flow works in the loop of Henle.
Understand the function of ADH in osmoregulation.
Understand how the blood pressure and reabsorption of sodium is closely regulated by the action of the hormones atrionatriuretic factor, renin, angiotensin II and aldosterone and how reabsorption of phosphate is regulated by parathyroid hormone.

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Assignments


Browse the images and study the Digestive System and Nutrition vocabulary (at least through Level 3) in the MCAT Primer. Use the question mask for a final drill and then test yourself on the basic terms with the Crossword Puzzle. Here is the Solution. You can also work on the vocabulary online at the Question Server.
Read pp 119-125 in ExamKrackers Biology. Perform the questions on pg 126. Read pp 127-132. Perform the questions on pg 133.
Take a review tour of the Digestive System and Nutrition resources in the Learning Center.
Complete the Advanced Crossword Puzzle for the Digestive System. Here is the Solution.

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Goals


Be able to describe the basic anatomy of the human digestive tract.
Distinguish the different types of cells within gastric glands in the stomach and be able to identify their secretions.
Know the function of intrinsic factor secreted by parietal cells.
Understand how the secretion of pepsinogen by chief cells is regulated.
Be able to describe the composition of bile from the bile duct and pancreatic juice from the pancreatic duct as they are released into the duodenum.
Understand how the secretion of bile is regulated by release of CCK from the duodenum.
Be familiar with the structure and mechanisms of the hepatic portal system.
Be familiar with the structure of the epithelial tissue constituting the inner lining of the small intestine.
Have a good overview of the functions of the various hormones of the gastrointestinal system.
Possess a good overview of the needs of human nutrition including the familiarity with the essential vitamins and minerals.
Know which digestive enzymes, or zymogens, are secreted at which points in the digestive tract and to what end.

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Assignments


Browse the images and study the Reproductive System vocabulary (at least through Level 3) in the MCAT Primer. Use the question mask for a final drill and then test yourself on the basic terms with the Crossword Puzzle. Here is the Solution. You can also work on the vocabulary online at the Question Server.
Read pg 111-116 in ExamKrackers Biology. Perform the questions on pg 118.
Take a review tour of the Reproductive System resources in the Learning Center.
Complete the Advanced Crossword Puzzle for the Reproductive System. Here is the Solution.

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Goals


Understand the basic principles of meiotic gametogenesis and fertilization.
Know the basic anatomy of the human male reproductive system.
Be able to narrate the stages of spermatogenesis including the factors of hormonal regulation and be familiar with the structure of sperm cells.
Know the basic anatomy of the human female reproductive system.
Be able to narrate the stages of oogenesis in the context of the menstrual cycle. Understand the roles played by the hormones regulating the menstrual cycle.
Be able to describe the stages of fertilization and implantation.
Understand the anatomical changes, mechanics, and neuroendocrine processes involved in parturition and lactation.

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Review & Preview

Assignments


Let's try a variation of something we did earlier in the course. Study the outlines of Physics, General Chemistry, Organic Chemistry and Biology accessible through the links below. Read them slowly and carefully. Try to picture the model phenomena of importance within each area. Reproduce each outline on a blank sheet of paper.

Physics

Chemistry

Organic

Biology

As you conceptualize each chapter in terms of main ideas, model systems, phenomena, and terminology, self-assess your comfort level. Are you ready to interpret passages dealing with the subject matter? When you see an MCAT style question from the subject, do you experience fear or relief? Looking at the outlines you have written out, choose the fifteen or twenty chapters which are your weaknesses, the subjects where you are most apprehensive about questions. Be honest with yourself.
Using your study materials and this website in the way you see fit, carry out a comprehensive study cycle for five or six hours in preparation for the practice test in Module 16. Take extra time when you reach one of the topics you have identified as a weakness above.

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Goals


Possess comprehensive awareness of the structure of the scientific knowledge base reflected in terms of strengths and weaknesses in MCAT performance.
Understand the purposes of the cycle of test practice and self-assessment in helping you improve.

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Knowledge Mapping

Assignments


Read the Coaching Discussions associated with the Main Sequence topics of Mammalian Tissues and Histology, The Nervous System, Sensory Systems, The Endocrine System, The Musculoskeletal System, The Cardiovascular System, Blood, The Respiratory System, The Lymphatic System and Immunity, The Urinary System, The Digestive System and Nutrition, and The Reproductive System. Start HERE and proceed by clicking the right arrow.

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Goals


Watch for and recall examples that integrate the macromolecular, cellular, tissue, and physiological levels of human biology.
Be comfortable with the mixture of physics and physiology in the use of terminology from electrostatics in the context of neuron membrane potential.
Maintain fluent connection between the physical science of sensory input transduction pathways in the interactions of visible light and pigments in the retina of the eye and standing waves in the perilymph of the inner ear.
Integrating solution chemistry, membrane transport mechanisms, and the endocrine chemistry to bear in mind which hormones cross the membrane of target cells and which rely on second messenger systems.
Be able to relate the phosphoryl transfer potential of creatine phosphate in muscle tissue to the phosphoryl transfer potential of ATP bearing in mind the transcendence of phosphoryl transfer in providing the thermodynamic potential for life processes.
Be able to give examples of the fundamental principles of fluid mechanics at play in the cardiovascular system, i.e. continuity of volume flux, Bernoulli's principle, Poiseuille's Law, and Reynolds number.
Be able to give examples of the fundamental principles of the laws of gases and solution chemistry at play in the respiratory system, i.e. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure and Henry's Law.
Understand the relevance of complex gene expression in the immune system to the coding of the heavy and light chains of antibodies as well as the major histocompatibility complex.
Understand the central importance of osmotic pressure and counter-current flow to the formation of urine.

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Verbal Reasoning

Assignments


Revisit the WikiPremed treatment of Verbal Reasoning on the MCAT.
Perform Passages 1-10 in ExamKrackers 101 Passages in MCAT Verbal Reasoning.
Go through the test you completed. Label every question by type in the margin: Main Idea, Author's Tone, Thematic Extension, Specific Inference, or Facts & Information. Which types seem to be giving the most problems? In the ones you missed, how do your chosen answers differ from the correct answers?

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Goals


Remember the five main types of Verbal Reasoning questions.

Main Idea

Author's Tone

Thematic Extension

Specific Inference

Facts & Information

Verbal Reasoning Tip of the Week
Watch out for wrong answers designed to entice you to answer what your own opinion is instead of the author's. The question prompt will not say, 'according to you'. It will say, 'according to the author'.

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Essay

Assignments


Read the WikiPremed guide to Writing the MCAT Essay.
Arrange an undisturbed half hour to write an essay. Click Here for your essay topic for module seveb. Don't advance to page 2 until you are ready to begin writing.

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Goals


Focus on how to lean a bit towards either the first or the second essay task to give your essay dynamism and unity.

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MECHANICS & WAVES
MCAT course 
syllabus module 1
Kinematics
Newton's Laws
Work, Energy, & Power
Momentum & Impulse
MCAT course syllabus module 2
Rotation  
Harmonic Motion
Elastic Properties of Solids
Fluid Mechanics
Waves
FUNDAMENTAL FORCES
MCAT course syllabus module 3
Gravitation
Electricity
THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER
MCAT course 
syllabus module 4
Atomic Theory
Periodic Properties
The Chemical Bond
Intermolecular Forces
MCAT course syllabus module 5
Functional Groups
Stereochemistry
THERMODYNAMICS & KINETICS
MCAT course syllabus module 6
Temperature & Heat Flow
Ideal Gas & Kinetic Theory
1st Law of Thermodynamics
Stoichiometry
Thermochemistry
MCAT course syllabus module 7
2nd Law & Heat Engines
Chemical Thermodynamics
The States of Matter
Orgo Physical Properties
Chemical Kinetics
AQUEOUS SYSTEMS
MCAT course syllabus module 8
Water
Solutions
Acids & Bases
Organic Acids & Bases
ORGANIC REACTION CHEMISTRY
MCAT course syllabus module 9
Nucleophiles & Electrophiles
Rearrangements
Radical Intermediates
Conjugation & Aromaticity
Alkanes
Alkenes  optional
Alkynes  optional
Alkyl Halides
Allylic Conjugation
Aromatic Compounds  optional
Alcohols & Ethers
Aldehydes & Ketones
Carboxylic Acids
Amines
Phosphorus Compounds
Sulfur Compounds
MCAT course 
syllabus module 10Overall Review
BIOMOLECULES
MCAT course syllabus module 11
Proteins
Carbohydrates
Nucleic Acids
Lipids
THE CELL
Biological Membranes
The Prokaryotic Cell
The Eukaryotic Cell
BIOENERGETICS & BIOSYNTHESIS
MCAT course syllabus module 12
Coordination Chemistry
Oxidation/Reduction
Redox in Organic Chemistry
Electrochemistry
Cellular Respiration
Photosynthesis  optional
Integration of Metabolism
GENETICS & REPRODUCTION
MCAT course syllabus module 13
Gene Expression
Cellular Reproduction
Mendelian Genetics
Recombination & Mutation
Molecular Biology Lab
Human Genetics
DIVERSITY OF LIFE
MCAT course syllabus module 14
Viruses
Bacteria & Archaea
Protista  taxonomy optional
Fungi
Plants  optional
Animals  taxonomy optional
Embryology
MCAT course 
syllabus module 15
Tissues & Histology
HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
Nervous System
Sensory Systems
Endocrine System
Musculoskeletal System
Cardiovascular System
Blood
Respiratory System
Lymphatic System & Immunity
Urinary System
Digestive System
Reproductive System
POPULATION BIOLOGY
MCAT course syllabus module 16
Evolution
Ecology
ELECTROMAGNETISM, LIGHT, & MODERN PHYSICS
MCAT course syllabus module 17
Electricity
DC Current
Magnetism
Electomagnetic Induction
AC Current
MCAT course syllabus module 18
Properties of Light
Geometric Optics
Wave Optics
MCAT course syllabus module 19
Modern Physics  relativity optional
Molecular Spectroscopy
Nuclear Physics
MCAT course 
syllabus module 20Overall Review
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