Module 9

Main Progression - Nucleophiles & Electrophiles, Intramolecular Cationic Rearrangements, Reactions with Radical Intermediates, Conjugated π Systems and Aromaticity, Reactions of Alkanes, Reactions of Alkenes, Reactions of Alkynes, Reactions of Alkyl Halides, Reactions of Allylic and Benzylic Forms, Reactions of Aromatic Compounds, Reactions of Alcohols and Ethers, Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones, Reactions of Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives, Reactions of Amines, Reactions of Organic Phosphorus Compounds, and Reactions of Organic Sulfur Compounds

Review & Preview - As part of the review for your first practice test in the next module, make a comprehensive review tour of all four disciplines.

Knowledge Mapping - In addition to working to improve your understanding of the physical science basis of organic reaction chemistry, there is a lot of just plain coaching for the test this week in the discussions.

Essay & Verbal Reasoning - Peform ten passages worth of Verbal Reasoning Practice. Continue to analyze your strengths and weaknesses for the different types of questions. Write another essay.

Main Progression

Assignments


Read the Nucleophiles & Electrophiles Glossary to prime yourself mentally for this topic. Make sure you are familiar with basic vocabulary. Perform the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle. When you are ready, click here for the Solution.
The main purpose of this chapter is to give you another framework to step back to look at the reaction mechanisms from a different point of view. Under the WikiPremed Resources for Nucleophiles and Electrophiles you will see nine mechanisms. Go through these mechanisms in a careful way, reading the explanations, focusing on the role of nucleophiles and electrophiles in the reaction. Use the reactions to understand nucleophiles and electrophiles better and use your understanding of nucleophiles and electrophiles to understand the reactions better.
The Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry is especially good at explaining nucleophiles and electrophiles. Start HERE and read the web resources from the Learning Center on this topic.

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Goals


Be able to articulate a clear description of a nucleophile and an electrophile.
Be able to separate basicity from nucleophilicity.
Understand how acid-base catalysis may activate certain substrates for nucleophilic attack by weaker nucleophiles.
Be able to describe how solvation affects the reactivity of a nucleophile in terms of electrostatic principles (ie. the behavior of dielectrics).
Understand why alkenes and alkynes are susceptible to attack by electrophiles.

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Assignments


Read the Intramolecular Cationic Rearrangements Glossary. Make sure you are familiar with basic vocabulary. Perform the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle. When you are ready, click here for the Solution.
As with the previous topic, the main purpose of separating out this conceptual area is to give you another framework to step back to look at the reaction mechanisms from a different point of view. Be sure to remember the mechanisms in which rearrangement may occur. Under the WikiPremed Resources for Intramolecular Cationic Rearrangements you will see a few example mechanisms showing carbocation intermediates. Take a few minutes to focus on preparing yourself for encountering reactions with carbocation intermediates on the MCAT so that you do not forget that rearrangments may occur in such cases.
Read section 1 from the chapter from the Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry on Cationic Rearrangments HERE The more advanced material following this discussion is an excellent comprehension exercise to prepare for difficult MCAT passages though it does not represent material you must know for the exam.

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Goals


Distinguish the relative stability of various types of carbocations.
Understand the different types of substituent shifts which may occur to transform a less stable into a more stable carbocation.
Identify the fundamental organic chemistry reactions where rearrangement may occur.

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Assignments


Read the Reactions with Radical Intermediates Glossary. Make sure you are familiar with basic vocabulary. Perform the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle. When you are ready, click here for the Solution.
Review Free Radical Halogenation and Free Radical Addition
Following the links in the learning center, read the selections from Purdue University and from The Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry on the organic chemistry of free radicals. The Purdue section is more basic while the Virtual Textbook contains some more advanced material which is an excellent reading comprehension practice for MCAT passages but which you should not feel compelled to worry greatly about in terms of retention. The links can be found HERE.

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Goals


Understand the fundamental difference between the homolytic and heterolytic breaking of a bond.
Distinguish the stability of various types of carbon radicals especially as this relates to the prediction the major product of radical halogenation and radical addition.
Understand the methods of generating organic free radicals.
Be able to visualize the geometry of a radical carbon in three dimensions.

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Assignments


Read the Conjugated π Systems and Aromaticity Glossary. Make sure you are familiar with basic vocabulary. Perform the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle. When you are ready, click here for the Solution.
Following the links from the Learning Center which are concerned with the nature of aromatic and conjugated compounds. Begin HERE. This topic is distinct from the reactions of these compounds, which is the concern of a later topic within this module.

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Goals


Understand the role of resonance in promoting the stability of conjugated and aromatic systems.
Be able to recall the conditions for aromaticity including Hückel's Rule.
Know how to determine whether or not a polycyclic or heterocyclic compound as well as a cyclic ion is aromatic from the structural formula. Be able to recognize the most prominent heterocyclic aromatic compounds such as furan, imidazole, pyridine, or pyrolle.
Understand the basis of Hückel's Rule by means of the model of benzene given by molecular orbital theory.

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Videos

Assignments


Although conceptual vocabulary with reaction chemistry isn't as central as with some other topics, such as much of the biology, still do go ahead and read the Alkanes Glossary and take a few minutes to perform the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle for reactions of alkanes. This will help orient you to the topic. When you are ready, click here for the Solution to the crossword.
Study the WikiPremed Reaction Mechanisms for Alkane Chemistry. Pay special attention to Free Radical Halogenation, an MCAT favorite.
Follow the links from the Learning Center to outside Web Resources for Alkane Chemistry beginning HERE.
Read pp. 28-32 in Examkrackers Organic Chemistry. Perform the questions on p. 33.

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Goals


Be able to characterize the geometry, physical properties, and general reactivity of alkanes.
Know how to reproduce the stoichiometry of the combustion reaction and understand the enthalpy of combustion in terms of bond energy as well as the oxidation-reduction framework.
Be capable of writing out the mechanism for Free Radical Halogenation of Alkanes.
Be able to reproduce the explanation of the greater regioselectivity of free radical bromination compared to chlorination in terms of Hammond's postulate.

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Videos

Assignments


Read the Alkenes Glossary and take a few minutes to perform the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle for reactions of Alkenes. When you are ready, click here for the Solution.
Study the WikiPremed Reaction Mechanisms for Alkane Chemistry. Although you should become familiar with all of the mechanisms, pay extra attention to Catalytic Hydrogenation, Electrophilic Addition of HX to Alkenes, Free Radical Addition of HX to Alkenes, Acid Catalyzed Hydration of Alkenes, and Electrophilic Addition of Halogens to Alkenes.
Follow the links from the Learning Center to outside resources on the web for Alkene Chemistry. Start HERE.
Read pp. 34-41 in Examkrackers Organic Chemistry. Perform the questions on pp. 42-43. (This material also covers electrophilic aromatic substitution.)

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Goals


Be able to characterize the geometry, physical properties, and general reactivity of alkenes. Understand why alkenes are reactive to electrophiles.
Understand the stereochemical consequences of syn addition in Catalytic Hydrogenation.
Be able to reproduce the mechanism of the Electrophilic Addition of HX to Alkenes. Understand why the reaction occurs by Markovnikov addition.
Be able to reproduce the mechanism of the addition of XX (halogen) to alkenes on paper. Understand the stereochemical consequences of the fact that the cyclic halonium intermediate in this reaction leads to anti addition.
Understand the differences among the various methods for producing an alcohol from an alkene - Acid Catalyzed Hydration, Hydroboration-Oxidation, and Oxymercuration-Demercuration.
Be familiar with the products of oxidation of alkenes in Oxidation to Diols, Oxidative Cleavage, and Ozonolysis.

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Videos

Assignments


Read the Alkynes Glossary and take a few minutes to perform the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle. Click here for the Solution to the crossword.
Study the WikiPremed Reaction Mechanisms for Alkyne Chemistry. Many of the mechanisms are similar to alkene chemistry. Pay special attention to Hydration of Alkynes and Formation of Acetylide Anion Nucleophiles.
Follow the links from the Learning Center to outside resources on the web for Alkynes. Start HERE.

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Goals


Be able to characterize the geometry, physical properties, and general reactivity of alkynes. Though very slight, understand why alkynes possess a degree of acidity.
Be prepared to recognize that hydration of an alkyne yields an enol (which will interconvert with a carbonyl compound via keto-enol tautomerism).
Give special attention to the ability in organic synthesis to form new carbon-carbon bonds via the formation of a nucleophile from the conjugate base of a terminal alkyne.

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Videos

Assignments


Read the Alkyl Halides Glossary and take a few minutes to perform the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle. Click here for the Solution to the crossword.
Study the WikiPremed Reaction Mechanisms for Alkyl Halides. You need to know SN1 and SN2 Substitution and E1 and E2 Elimination backwards and forwards.
Follow the links from the Learning Center to outside resources on the web for Alkyl Halides. Start HERE.
Read pp. 44-45 in Examkrackers Organic Chemistry.

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Goals


Be able to reproduce the mechanisms on paper for SN2 Substitution, SN1 Substitution, E2 Elimination, and E1 Elimination.
Understand how the substrate, nucleophile, and solvent determine whether SN2 Substitution, E2 elimination, or E1/SN1 will occur.
Comprehend why a polar protic solvent inhibits the activity of a nucleophile for SN2 substitution, ie. why an aprotic solvent is necessary.
Be able to articulate the stereochemical consequences of SN2 substitution upon the chiral center of a pure enantiomer as opposed to SN1 substitution.
Remember that rearrangement may occur with the carbocation intermediate in the E1 or SN1 mechanisms.
Understand the relevance of Zaitsev's Rule to predicting the position of the double bond resulting from E2 elimination as well as the relevance of the anti periplanar transition state in determining the stereospecificity of the product.

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Videos

Assignments


Read the Reactions of Allylic and Benzylic Conjugation Glossary and take a few minutes to perform the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle. Click here for the Solution to the crossword.
Study the WikiPremed Reaction Mechanisms for Allylic and Benzylic Conjugation. Each of the three mechanisms within the group is within the category of the more important reactions for the exam.
Follow the links from the Learning Center to outside resources on the web for Reactions of Allylic and Benzylic Conjugation. Start HERE.

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Goals


Recognize the significance of allylic stabilization in facilitating carbocation formation adjacent to a double bond.
Be prepared to distinguish the resonance stabilized carbocation intermediate formed in electrophilic addition of XX to a conjugated diene from the typical halonium ion formed in the normal electrophilic addition of XX to alkenes.
Understand the consequences of the 1,2 product of electrophilic addition of XX to a conjugated diene being kinetically favored while the 1,4 product is thermodynamically favored. Know which conditions favor which product.
Be able to define a pericyclic process such as occurs in the Diels-Alder reaction and also be able to recognize a dienophile.

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Videos

Assignments


Read the Reactions of Aromatic Compounds Glossary and take a few minutes to perform the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle. Click here for the Solution to the crossword.
Study the WikiPremed Mechanisms for Reactions with Aromatic Compounds. Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution is an MCAT favorite.
Follow the links from the Learning Center to outside resources on the web for Reactions with Aromatic Compounds. Start HERE.
Read pp. 39-41 in Examkrackers Organic Chemistry.

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Goals


Make sure you can construct the generic mechanism for Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution on a blank sheet of paper.
For Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution occuring upon a ring already containing a substituent, be able to determine whether the substituent is either an Ortho-Para director or a Meta director.
Be familiar with the specifics of reactions involving the various electrophiles in Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution in Reaction with Halogen, Nitration, Sulfonation, and Friedel-Crafts Alkylation and Acylation.
Recall the general principles underlying the mechanism of Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution.
Recognize the special reactivity of the benzylic position within an alkyl benzene substrate.

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Videos

Assignments


Read the Alcohols and Ethers Glossary and take a few minutes to perform the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle. Click here for the Solution to the crossword.
Study the WikiPremed Reaction Mechanisms for Reactions of Alcohols and Ethers.
Follow the links from the Learning Center to outside resources on the web for Reactions of Alcohols and Ethers. Start HERE.
Read pp. 48-52 in Examkrackers Organic Chemistry. Perform the questions on pp. 53-54.

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Goals


Be able to picture the means by which acid catalysis activates the hydroxyl group as a leaving group, enabling alcohols to undergo SN1 Substitution or E1 Elimination.
Remember that Thionyl Chloride and Phosphorus Tribromide enable the transformation of an alcohol into an alkyl halide.
Be able to assign oxidation number to the hydroxyl carbon of an alcohol and be able to place alcohols within the redox sequence including aldehydes/ketones and carboxylic acids.
Understand the acid-base properties of alcohols and the significance within reaction chemistry, i.e. the use of alkoxide anion as a nucleophile.
Recall how ethers may be formed as well as characterize their reactivity.
Be capable of elucidating the nature of epoxides, their formation and basic reactivity.

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Videos

Assignments


Read the Aldehydes and Ketones Glossary and take a few minutes to perform the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle. Click here for the Solution to the crossword.
Study the WikiPremed Reaction Mechanisms for Aldehydes and Ketones. Because of the importance of aldehydes and ketones in biochemistry, these mechanisms seem to have a special focus on the MCAT, especially Acetal Formation and Aldol Condensation.
Follow the links from the Learning Center to outside resources on the web for Alkyl Halides. Start HERE.
Read pp. 55-61 in Examkrackers Organic Chemistry. Perform the questions on pp. 62-63.

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Goals


Be capable of characterizing the two major classes of aldehyde-ketone reactions, those involving nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon and those occuring by means of keto-enol tautomerism.
Although you don't need to worry about every proton movement, you should be able to reproduce the decisive phases of Acetal Formation, Reductive Amination, and Reaction of Aldehydes and Ketones with Grignard Reagents.
Be able to recognize and characterize these other reactions involving nucleophilic attack on a carbonyl carbon if they are presented to you: The Wittig Reaction, The Wolff-Kishner Reaction and The Cannizzaro Reaction.
Recognize an enol. Be comfortable reproducing acid or base catalyzing enolization on paper.
Understand what it means to say that Aldol Condensation involves both keto-enol tautomerism and nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon. Know this reaction backwards and forwards.
Be able to predict the product from the reagents for Alpha Halogenation, Haloform Reaction, as well as Conjugate Nucleophilic Addition. Have a good sense of these mechanisms.
Understand the place of aldehydes and ketones in the redox sequence with alcohols and carboxylic acids.

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Videos

Assignments


Read the Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives Glossary and take a few minutes to perform the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle. Click here for the Solution to the crossword.
Study the WikiPremed Reaction Mechanisms for Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives. There are many examples within these reactions of the acyl substitution mechanism, which you must have down pat.
Follow the links from the Learning Center to outside resources on the web for Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives. Start HERE.
Read pp. 64-67 in Examkrackers Organic Chemistry. Perform the questions on p. 68.

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Goals


Understand how resonance stabilization of the carboxylate anion promotes the acidity of carboxylic acids.
Understand the order of stability among carboxylic acid derivatives.
See nucleophilic acyl substitution mechanisms as recapitulations of a general mechanism involving formation and resolution of a tetrahedral intermediate: Acid Halide Formation, Fischer Esterification, Use of Carboxylate Anion Nucleophile to form Esters, Hydrolysis of Acid Halides, Reaction of Acyl Halide with Ammonia or Amine, Esterification of Acid Halides, Esterification of Acid Anhydrides, Saponification of Esters. Acyl substitution appears on many MCATs.
Understand the role acid catalysis plays in facilitating some acyl substitution mechanisms.
Be able to recognize and follow Claisen Condensation, Nitrile Hydrolysis, Nitrile Reduction or Hofmann Rearrangement if you were presented with the mechanism.

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Assignments


Read the Reactions of Amines Glossary and take a few minutes to perform the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle. Click here for the Solution to the crossword.
Although amine reactions aren't separated out within the WikiPremed Organic Mechanisms, they may often appear as nucleophiles within other categories. Follow the links from the Learning Center to outside resources on the web for Amines. Start HERE.
Read pp. 69-76 in Examkrackers Organic Chemistry. Perform the questions on pp. 77-78

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Goals


Understand the properties of amines as weak bases.
Be familiar with Amine mechanisms we have seen in other contexts including SN1 or SN2 Substitution with Alkyl Halides where an Amine is the nucleophile, the reaction of Amines as the nucleophile with Aldehydes and Ketones such as occurs in Reductive Amination, the the reaction of Amines with Carboxylic Acid Derivatives such as with Acyl Halides and in Hofmann Elimination.

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Assignments


Read the Organic Phosphorus Compounds Glossary and take a few minutes to perform the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle. Click here for the Solution to the crossword. This is an area where a little bit of terminology and a bit of familiarity is all you need.
Organic Phosphorus Compounds and Sulfur Compounds have a way of appearing on the exam as a kind of defamiliaring strategy on the part of the test-writers. Follow the links from the Learning Center to outside resources on the web. Make the article in the Virtual Organic Textbook a comprehension challenge. Start HERE.

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Goals


Be familiar with the structural formulas and nomenclature for the range of oxidation states of organic phosphorus compounds from phosphines to phosphate esters.
Be able to picture the formation of a phosphate ester from phosphoric acid in a dehydration reaction (probably the most important phosphorus chemistry for the MCAT).
Understand the structure of a phosphorus ylide, such as plays a role in the Wittig Reaction.

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Assignments


The disposition towards Organic Sulfur Compounds on the MCAT is similar to Organic Phosphorus Compounds. There is a not a great deal of material in this topic, but the MCAT likes to include Organic Sulfur Compounds as a way of separating rote learners from conceptual learners. Give yourself an advantage by taking a little time with these substances, which are very important in Biochemistry. Read the Organic Sulfur Compounds Glossary and take a few minutes to perform the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle. Click here for the Solution to the crossword.
Follow the links from the Learning Center to outside resources on the web for Organic Sulfur Compounds. Start HERE.

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Goals


Understand the structural formulas and nomenclature for the range of oxidation states of organic sulfur compounds from thiols and sulfides to sulfate esters.
Be familiar with the use of thiolate, sulfide and other organic sulfur compounds as a nucleophiles in reaction with alkyl halides.

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Review & Preview

Assignments


Practice recreating the WikiPremed outlines of Physics, Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, and Biology with a blank sheet of paper until you can reproduce all four from memory.
Use WikiPremed to carry out a substantial review cycle. Make sure you know the basic terminology from beginning to end. Play at at Level 2, without rolling movement dice but still rolling difficulty dice, moving one space at a time, and see if you can make it from Physics all the way to Biology. Carefully look over the figures in each chapter and try to imagine the kinds of phenomena you might see in MCAT passages. Go one topic at a time and do not proceed to the next topic until you have answered three questions in a row. Skip Photosynthesis, Animals, and Plants if you like. Use your question book and slider for this exercise instead of the online question server so that you can browse each chapter's figures as you go.
You are cramming for the MCAT which is the day after tomorrow! You forgot to study! Read quickly through the conceptual discussions in Examkrackers Physics, General Chemistry, Biology from beginning to end. (You will have read most of the Organic Chemistry this week as part of your review of the Mechanisms in the Main Progression) I know it feels impossible. Try to get through it in five or six hours. Imagine the test is the day after tomorrow! What would you do?

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Goals


Since the beginning of the course in our Main Progression we have been tunneling through the mountain. In Review & Preview we have been surveying the mountain. After this week, you should be able to see the disciplines in great detail from the bird's eye view. Now to the end of the course you will know what you need to know. You need to begin to think of your knowledge base as a performance that you refine in testing. Begin holding yourself responsible for the comprehensive MCAT material at the level of fundamental principles from beginning to end.
Be able to clearly picture the phenomena described within each main topic of of the four scientific disciplines and describe at least one or two main concepts from each topic.

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Knowledge Mapping

Assignments


Read the Coaching Discussions associated with the Main Progression topics we studied this week in Organic Chemistry. Start HERE and proceed by clicking 'Next Discussion'. When you reach the discussions for Spectroscopy, start again HERE and proceed by clicking 'Next Discussion' until you reach the end of the mechanisms.

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Goals


Be able to discuss Organic Chemistry in the light of the physical sciences. Deepen your conception of reaction dynamics by applying concepts like Work & Energy and Electrostatic Force to obtain more mature understanding of Chemical Bonding, Chemical Thermodynamics, and Chemical Kinetics in the Organic Chemistry context.
Be able to point to examples from Biochemistry of important concepts of Organic Chemistry. Not only will this help deepen your understanding, it high-lights a favored set of Organic Chemistry concepts for the MCAT test writers.
Develop your ability to grip down and comprehend dense passages involving Organic Chemistry terminology and concepts, especially in the Biochemical context. Many MCAT passages take the approach of presenting fundamental Organic Chemistry concepts (not too hard) within a life science context that is dense with terminology.

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Verbal Reasoning

Assignments


Revisit the WikiPremed treatment of Verbal Reasoning on the MCAT.
Perform Passages 11-20 in Examkrackers MCAT101 Passages in MCAT Verbal Reasoning.
Go through the test you completed. Label every question by type in the margin: Main Idea, Author's Tone, Thematic Extension, Specific Inference, or Facts & Information. Which types seem to be giving the most problems? In the ones you missed, how do your chosen answers differ from the correct answers?

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Goals


Remember the five main types of Verbal Reasoning questions.

Main Idea

Author's Tone

Thematic Extension

Specific Inference

Facts & Information

Verbal Reasoning Tip of the Week
If you think an answer must be wrong because it seems too easy, don't argue yourself out of it. Some of the questions are easy. Trust yourself.

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Essay

Assignments


Read the WikiPremed guide to Writing the MCAT Essay.
Arrange an undisturbed half hour to write an essay. Click Here for your essay topic for module nine. Don't advance to page 2 until you are ready to begin writing.

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Goals


This week, make sure you expand either the first or second task to a solid two paragraphs.

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MECHANICS & WAVES
MCAT course 
syllabus module 1
Kinematics
Newton's Laws
Work, Energy, & Power
Momentum & Impulse
MCAT course syllabus module 2
Rotation  
Harmonic Motion
Elastic Properties of Solids
Fluid Mechanics
Waves
FUNDAMENTAL FORCES
MCAT course syllabus module 3
Gravitation
Electricity
THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER
MCAT course 
syllabus module 4
Atomic Theory
Periodic Properties
The Chemical Bond
Intermolecular Forces
MCAT course syllabus module 5
Functional Groups
Stereochemistry
THERMODYNAMICS & KINETICS
MCAT course syllabus module 6
Temperature & Heat Flow
Ideal Gas & Kinetic Theory
1st Law of Thermodynamics
Stoichiometry
Thermochemistry
MCAT course syllabus module 7
2nd Law & Heat Engines
Chemical Thermodynamics
The States of Matter
Orgo Physical Properties
Chemical Kinetics
AQUEOUS SYSTEMS
MCAT course syllabus module 8
Water
Solutions
Acids & Bases
Organic Acids & Bases
ORGANIC REACTION CHEMISTRY
MCAT course syllabus module 9
Nucleophiles & Electrophiles
Rearrangements
Radical Intermediates
Conjugation & Aromaticity
Alkanes
Alkenes  optional
Alkynes  optional
Alkyl Halides
Allylic Conjugation
Aromatic Compounds  optional
Alcohols & Ethers
Aldehydes & Ketones
Carboxylic Acids
Amines
Phosphorus Compounds
Sulfur Compounds
MCAT course 
syllabus module 10Overall Review
BIOMOLECULES
MCAT course syllabus module 11
Proteins
Carbohydrates
Nucleic Acids
Lipids
THE CELL
Biological Membranes
The Prokaryotic Cell
The Eukaryotic Cell
BIOENERGETICS & BIOSYNTHESIS
MCAT course syllabus module 12
Coordination Chemistry
Oxidation/Reduction
Redox in Organic Chemistry
Electrochemistry
Cellular Respiration
Photosynthesis  optional
Integration of Metabolism
GENETICS & REPRODUCTION
MCAT course syllabus module 13
Gene Expression
Cellular Reproduction
Mendelian Genetics
Recombination & Mutation
Molecular Biology Lab
Human Genetics
DIVERSITY OF LIFE
MCAT course syllabus module 14
Viruses
Bacteria & Archaea
Protista  taxonomy optional
Fungi
Plants  optional
Animals  taxonomy optional
Embryology
MCAT course 
syllabus module 15
Tissues & Histology
HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
Nervous System
Sensory Systems
Endocrine System
Musculoskeletal System
Cardiovascular System
Blood
Respiratory System
Lymphatic System & Immunity
Urinary System
Digestive System
Reproductive System
POPULATION BIOLOGY
MCAT course syllabus module 16
Evolution
Ecology
ELECTROMAGNETISM, LIGHT, & MODERN PHYSICS
MCAT course syllabus module 17
Electricity
DC Current
Magnetism
Electomagnetic Induction
AC Current
MCAT course syllabus module 18
Properties of Light
Geometric Optics
Wave Optics
MCAT course syllabus module 19
Modern Physics  relativity optional
Molecular Spectroscopy
Nuclear Physics
MCAT course 
syllabus module 20Overall Review
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