Module 8

Main Progression - Water, Solutions, Acids & Bases, and Organic Acids and Bases

Review & Preview - It is time to take a tour of Biology as a whole.

Knowledge Mapping - Integrate fundamental physics and chemistry electrodynamic and thermodynamic principles with solution and acid/base concepts. Preview these concepts within various contexts from biology.

Testing - Take a comprehensive diagnostic test on Mechanics, Waves and Thermodynamics at the Testing Center. Also, begin studying for your first practice test.

Essay & Verbal Reasoning - Learn to recognize the different types of verbal reasoning questions. Write another essay.

Main Progression

Assignments


Take five minutes to browse the Water Images and read the Glossary to prime yourself mentally for this topic. Make sure you are familiar with basic vocabulary. Perform the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle. When you are ready, click here for the Solution.
We have made water its own topic in the Main Progression to encourage you to take some time to reflect on the unique properties of water which are centrally important within much of the science from chemistry to biology. There will be a few topics like this in the course, where you need to take some time for study and reflection, but which don't require the accustomed format of study tasks. Just be sure to carefully work through the excellent materials in the Learning Center describing the many facets of water, starting HERE. You will see these concepts come up again and again within other topics.

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Goals


Understand the basis of the geometry of a water molecule in VESPR.
Be prepared to explain the polarity of water molecules and hydrogen bonding as their mode of intermolecular force.
Be able to describe the dielectric properties of water.
Understand the physical properties of water including its phase equilibria. Be able to describe relationship between the density of water and the temperature. Be able to describe the triple point of water.
Know which categories of substances dissolve in water. Be able to predict the solubility of an organic substance in water from its structural formula. Understand the solubility properties of biological macromolecules.
Understand the solution process for an electrolyte in water. Be able to describe a hydration sphere.
Be able to describe the amphoteric nature of water.
Understand osmosis in terms of chemical thermodynamics.

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Videos

Assignments


Browse the Solutions Images and read the Glossary to get a feel for the field of reference for the topic and the basic vocabulary. Reinforce preparation with the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle. Click here for the Solution.
Read pp 65-89 in Examkrackers Chemistry and perform the problems on p. 69,74,78 and pp. 90-91 as you go. Take your time with this material.
Perform the WikiPremed Solutions Practice Items Here is the Answer Key.
Finish your Main Progression work on Solutions with a review tour of the Solutions external resources in the Learning Center.

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Goals


Be able to clearly distinguish a solution from other types of mixtures such as colloids.
Comprehend solutions involving various phases of matter. Be able to name a few solid, liquid, and gaseous solutions.
Understand how to work with various concentration expressions including mole fraction, molality, molarity and normality.
Understand the basis of solubility in chemical thermodynamics. Be capable of predicting the solubility in water of an organic compound from its structural formula.
Understand why some electrolytes are less soluble than others. Remember the solubility rules for electrolytes.
Have a clear sense of the structure at the particle level of an aqueous solution of electrolytes.
Gain facility in employing the solubility product to solve problems such as the final concentration of a solution of weak electrolyte.
Be able to describe the common ion effect and become familiar with typical common ion effect problems.
Understand heterogeneous solution equilibria when it is coupled with acid-base equilibria.
Be prepared to solve problems involving colligative properties including boiling point elevation, freezing point depression, vapor pressure lowering, and osmotic pressure.
Understand the definition of a colloidal suspension. Be able to conceptualize the structure at the particle level of micellar suspensions involving soaps and detergents.
Familiarize yourself with the chemical separation technique known as solvent extraction.

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Videos

Assignments


Browse the Acids & Bases Images and read the Acids & Bases Glossary to get a feel for the topic and its basic vocabulary. Here is the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle for Acids & Bases and the Solution.
Read pp. 92-97, 99-101, and 103-106 in Examkrackers Chemistry performing the problems on p. 98, p. 102, and pp 107-108.
Perform the Acids & Bases Practice Items Here is the Answer Key.
Close the circle with a review tour of the Acids & Bases resources in the Learning Center. The online teaching by Chem1.com and Purdue University are especially good in this area.

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Goals


Clearly distinguish the systems for defining acids and bases including Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, and Lewis.
Understand the meaning of conjugate acids and bases in the Brønsted-Lowry system.
Be able to place the Brønsted-Lowry system in the aqueous context in which the equilibrium of a conjugate acid and base is coupled with the autoprotolysis of water.
Become fluent in working with pH to describe the position of acid-base equilibrium in an aqueous solution.
Understand how to employ the the acid constant ka to determine the strength of an acid or its conjugate base, and become fluent in the basic techniques for solving acid-base equilibrium problems.
Develop a concrete, intuitive understanding of how a buffered solution works to modulate pH.
Know how to work with the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation backwards and forwards.
Be able to explain the behavior of an indicator.
Be able to interpret the titration curve of a weak acid with a strong base and the titration curve of a weak base with a strong acid. Be able to pick out the half-equivalence point and the equivalence point.
Extend your understanding to other titration curves, such as the titration of a polyprotic acid or an amino acid.

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Assignments


Browse the Organic Acids & Bases Images and read the Glossary to get a feel for the topic and its basic vocabulary. Peform the basic vocabulary Crossword Puzzle for waves to solidify your mastery of the basic conceptual vocabulary before proceeding. Here is the Solution.
Read subsections concerning the acidity and basicity of various functional groups on pp. 47, 52, 64, and 69 in Examkrackers Organic Chemistry.
Take a review tour of the Organic Acids & Bases resources in the Learning Center.

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Goals


Be able to name the organic acids and compare their relative acidities.
Understand the basicity of amines.
Place acidity and basicity in the context of organic reaction chemistry. Become familiar with the reactions in which it is an important factor.
Be prepared to predict the effect on acidity or basicity of an electron withdrawing or electron donating substituent placed near to an acidic or basic organic functional group.

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Review & Preview

Assignments


Carefully browse the conceptual discussions for Biology in Examkrackers from beginning to end. Read the headings. Browse the text. Look at the figures. Set your pace to take no more than 3 hours. You can use a similar work from another publisher for this assignment if you like.
Play the Biology section of WikiPremed at Level 2 without rolling movement dice, although you still roll difficulty dice. Go one topic at a time and do not proceed to the next topic until you have answered three questions in a row. Skip Photosynthesis, Animals, and Plants if you like. Use your question book and slider for this exercise instead of the online question server to be able to browse each chapter's figures as you go. One of the big challenges in MCAT preparation is the information volume in the biological sciences. You need to come to an understanding of the challenge this week, what mastering the fundamental factual knowledge for the test is going to entail.

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Goals


Gain a good sense of the outlines of Biology at the main topic level.
Be able to clearly picture the phenomena described within each main topic of Biology and describe at least one or two main concepts from each topic.

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Knowledge Mapping

Assignments


Read the Coaching Discussions associated with the Main Progression topics of Water, Solutions, Acids & Bases, and Organic Acids & Bases. Start HERE and proceed by clicking 'Next Discussion'.

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Goals


Be prepared to describe the chemical thermodynamics of the solution process in terms of fundamental principles. Understand why 'like dissolves like' in these terms.
Be able to explain boiling point elevation and freezing point depression in terms of changes in the relative free energy of a liquid which has a substance dissolved within it.
Account for the relative acidity within various groups of similar acids such as oxygen acids, the hydrogen halides, and carboxylic acids.
Be able to list some specific examples of acid/base phenemona in life science at the biochemical level as well as the physiological level.

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Testing

Assignments


Imagine that you have put off studying and the real MCAT is coming in just three weeks. How could you let this happen? What will you do? Over the next three weeks take about one third of your study time and pretend you are cramming for the MCAT. Use the resources that allow you get through the material quickly such as your WikiPremed system, ExamKrackers, your Organic Mechanisms Pocketbook, your Physics cards, and hold yourself responsible for making the best of a bad situation.

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Goals


Begin holding yourself responsible for basic level facility with the entire body of MCAT knowledge.
Take special care to be get your mind around the big fact hoardes such as the organic mechanisms and the physiology.
Really get to know all of your study books from beginning to end so that you can start seeing the boundaries of what you don't know instead of having it disappear over the horizon.

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Verbal Reasoning

Assignments


Two or three times this module, sit down for one half hour and read from the following works in the category of HISTORY OF SCIENCE. Practice sustaining your focus for active listening. Imagine the author. Try to hear the voice in the writing. You are working to develop stronger abilities for mindful reading.

accessibleThe American Goliah - Anonymous
moderatePhysics and Politics - Walter Bagehot
difficultA Mechanical Theory of Storms - T. Bassnett
 
Let's practice being an MCAT test writer. In this exercise, write a 'correct' and an 'incorrect' answer corresponding to questions following a typical verbal reasoning passage. Pretend you are part of a committee making the test, and your job is to write a 'best answer' and a 'second best' (tricky but wrong) answer. We will do this exercise often throughout the course to help you understand the nuances of the Verbal Reasoning questions. Print and complete this exercise. Click Here.

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Goals


Improve the stamina of your reading attention. Practice sustaining your focus through dense reading material.
Understand the intentions of the writers of Verbal Reasoning questions on the MCAT.
Verbal Reasoning Tip of the Week
Before beginning the questions after reading the passage, take a few seconds to re-assess the structure of the passage before beginning the questions, because now you can see the passage as a whole. Taking a few seconds for this process will help you with main idea and author's tone questions as well as orient you if you need to find a section regarding specific factual information in the passage.

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Essay

Assignments


Read the WikiPremed guide to Writing the MCAT Essay.
Arrange an undisturbed half hour to write an essay. Click Here for your essay topic for module eight. Don't advance to page 2 until you are ready to begin writing.

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Goals


Understand how to imagine a dialogue or debate as a generative device for writing MCAT essays.

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MECHANICS & WAVES
MCAT course 
syllabus module 1
Kinematics
Newton's Laws
Work, Energy, & Power
Momentum & Impulse
MCAT course syllabus module 2
Rotation  
Harmonic Motion
Elastic Properties of Solids
Fluid Mechanics
Waves
FUNDAMENTAL FORCES
MCAT course syllabus module 3
Gravitation
Electricity
THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER
MCAT course 
syllabus module 4
Atomic Theory
Periodic Properties
The Chemical Bond
Intermolecular Forces
MCAT course syllabus module 5
Functional Groups
Stereochemistry
THERMODYNAMICS & KINETICS
MCAT course syllabus module 6
Temperature & Heat Flow
Ideal Gas & Kinetic Theory
1st Law of Thermodynamics
Stoichiometry
Thermochemistry
MCAT course syllabus module 7
2nd Law & Heat Engines
Chemical Thermodynamics
The States of Matter
Orgo Physical Properties
Chemical Kinetics
AQUEOUS SYSTEMS
MCAT course syllabus module 8
Water
Solutions
Acids & Bases
Organic Acids & Bases
ORGANIC REACTION CHEMISTRY
MCAT course syllabus module 9
Nucleophiles & Electrophiles
Rearrangements
Radical Intermediates
Conjugation & Aromaticity
Alkanes
Alkenes  optional
Alkynes  optional
Alkyl Halides
Allylic Conjugation
Aromatic Compounds  optional
Alcohols & Ethers
Aldehydes & Ketones
Carboxylic Acids
Amines
Phosphorus Compounds
Sulfur Compounds
MCAT course 
syllabus module 10Overall Review
BIOMOLECULES
MCAT course syllabus module 11
Proteins
Carbohydrates
Nucleic Acids
Lipids
THE CELL
Biological Membranes
The Prokaryotic Cell
The Eukaryotic Cell
BIOENERGETICS & BIOSYNTHESIS
MCAT course syllabus module 12
Coordination Chemistry
Oxidation/Reduction
Redox in Organic Chemistry
Electrochemistry
Cellular Respiration
Photosynthesis  optional
Integration of Metabolism
GENETICS & REPRODUCTION
MCAT course syllabus module 13
Gene Expression
Cellular Reproduction
Mendelian Genetics
Recombination & Mutation
Molecular Biology Lab
Human Genetics
DIVERSITY OF LIFE
MCAT course syllabus module 14
Viruses
Bacteria & Archaea
Protista  taxonomy optional
Fungi
Plants  optional
Animals  taxonomy optional
Embryology
MCAT course 
syllabus module 15
Tissues & Histology
HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
Nervous System
Sensory Systems
Endocrine System
Musculoskeletal System
Cardiovascular System
Blood
Respiratory System
Lymphatic System & Immunity
Urinary System
Digestive System
Reproductive System
POPULATION BIOLOGY
MCAT course syllabus module 16
Evolution
Ecology
ELECTROMAGNETISM, LIGHT, & MODERN PHYSICS
MCAT course syllabus module 17
Electricity
DC Current
Magnetism
Electomagnetic Induction
AC Current
MCAT course syllabus module 18
Properties of Light
Geometric Optics
Wave Optics
MCAT course syllabus module 19
Modern Physics  relativity optional
Molecular Spectroscopy
Nuclear Physics
MCAT course 
syllabus module 20Overall Review
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