Module 7

Main Progression - The Second Law of Thermodynamics & Heat Engines, Chemical Thermodynamics and the Equilibrium State, The States of Matter, The Physical Properties of Organic Compounds, and Chemical Kinetics.

Review & Preview - This is the first module in which we find ourselves responsible for the outlines of all four disciplines: Physics, General Chemistry, Organic Chemistry and Biology.

Knowledge Mapping - An intense and challenging set of discussions designed to help you integrate a great deal of physics and chemistry.

Verbal Reasoning and Essay - Continuing the regimin of reading program, exercise, and writing assignment.

Main Progression

Videos

Assignments


Take five minutes to browse the 2nd Law & Heat Engines Images and read the Glossary to prime yourself mentally for this topic. Make sure you are familiar with basic vocabulary. Perform the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle. When you are ready, click here for the Solution.
Master the Concept and Question cards for Heat Engines and the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics from the Learning System for Physics.
2nd Law concepts are treated by Examkrackers in the Chemistry volume. These assignments are included in the Chemical Thermodynamics portion of this module.
Review the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics external resources for each of the subtopics within the Learning Center.

Activate      

Goals


Be able to explain the entropy of a system as a concept of statistics and probability.
Understand how the entropy of a system may change through processes such as heat flow, expansion, and mixture.
Be prepared to express the Second Law of Thermodynamics in a variety of ways and conceptualize how the different ways of expressing the 2nd Law are related.
Describe thermodynamic cycles and understand how to follow them on a pressure - volume (P - V) diagram.
Know how to determine the work done in a thermodynamic cycle from a P - V diagram.
Be able to narrate the Carnot cycle and understand the significance of the Carnot efficiency.
Recall the formula for entropy change due to heat flows at constant temperature and be prepared to bring this understanding to the understanding of the Carnot cycle.
Understand the determinations underlying the efficiency of a heat engine.
Comprehend heat pumps and be prepared to compute coefficient of performance.

Activate      



Videos

Assignments


Browse the Chemical Thermodynamics & Equilibrium Images and read the Glossary to get a feel for the field of reference for the topic and the basic vocabulary. Reinforce preparation with the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle. Click here for the Solution.
Read pp 38-41 in Examkrackers Chemistry. Questions pp 42-43. Read pp. 59-62 in Chemistry. Problems p. 63. Read pp. 117-118.
Ensure mastery with the WikiPremed Chemical Thermodynamics Problem Set. Here is the Solution.
Finish your Main Progression work on Ideal Gas & Kinetic Theory with a review tour of the Chemical Thermodynamics external resources in the Learning Center.

Activate      

Goals


Understand the basis for enthalpy change in internal energy change and thermodynamic work under the First Law of Thermodynamics. Develop a facility for predicting the direction of heat flow in a chemical reactions.
Work on your intuitive ability to compare the degree of order between reagents and products in chemical reactions so that you can better understand entropy change.
Be able to predict the entropy change for phase transitions, changes in volume at constant temperature, changes in temperature at constant pressure, and changes in pressure at constant temperature.
Comprehend the relationship of the entropy change of the system and the enthalpy change (heat flow) in determining the availability of energy to drive a reaction spontaneously. In other words, understand spontaneity. Understand the free energy change in a conceptual manner.
Be able to describe microscopic heat flows in a chemical system at equilibrium.
Appreciate the purpose of the convention of standard-state conditions. Be able to apply the standard free energy change to determine the free energy for various reaction quotients.
Understand the difference between an equilibrium constant and other reaction quotients in terms of free energy.
Understand the effects of changing concentrations, external pressure, and temperature on an equilibrium mixture through the qualitative application of Le Chatelier''s principle.

Activate      



Videos

Assignments


Browse the States of Matter Images and read the States of Matter Glossary to get a feel for the topic and its basic vocabulary. Here is the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle for States of Matter and the Solution.
Read pp 83-85 in Examkrackers Chemistry. Do the problems on pp 86-87.
Perform the WikiPremed States of Matter Practice Items Here is the Answer Key.
Close the circle with a review tour of the States of Matter resources in the Learning Center.

Activate      

Goals


Make sure you have achieved the learning goals for Ideal Gases including fully understanding the gas laws and the kinetic theory of gases.
Be capable of problem solving using Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures.
Understand the foundation in kinetic theory of Graham's Law of Effusion and be prepared to solve problems using these concepts.
Be prepared to describe how real gas behavior deviates from ideal gas behavior. Be able to interpret the Van der Waals Equation.
Grasp the intermolecular / thermodynamic basis of surface tension.
Be able to explain capillary action.
For crystalline solids, be ready to discuss the basic vocabulary of crystal lattice structure. Comprehend the technique of x-ray diffraction.
Grasp the concept of vapor pressure in thermodynamic terms.
Understand how to read phase diagrams. Be ready to discuss the triple point and the criticial point.

Activate      



Assignments


This is not a large formal topic. Perform the Crossword Puzzle to get oriented a bit. Here is the Solution.
Study the Physical Properties sections of Examkrackers Organic Chemistry and perform the practice items (edit).
Read the discussion on physical properties at the Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry and the discussion of solubility at Indiana University Southeast.

Activate      

Goals


Understand the relative strength of intermolecular force deriving from various functional groups.
Know how to correctly rank various organic compounds in order of melting point or boiling point.
Account for the effect of degree of saturation on boiling or melting point of compounds with long hydrocarbon chains.
From its structural formula, be able to predict the solubility of an organic compound in water.

Activate      



Assignments


Browse the Chemical Kinetics Images and read the Chemical Kinetics Glossary to get a feel for the topic and its basic vocabulary. Peform the basic vocabulary Crossword Puzzle for waves to solidify your mastery of the basic conceptual vocabulary before proceeding. Here is the Solution.
Read pp. 29-36 in Examkrackers Chemistry. Perform the questions on p 37.
Take a review tour of the Chemical Kinetics resources in the Learning Center.
Ensure mastery with the WikiPremed Thermochemistry Problem Set. Here is the Solution.

Activate      

Goals


Understand how the rate of a chemical reaction is measured.
Comprehend how to describe the relationship between the rate of a reaction, the concentration of reagents, and the rate constant k in a rate equation.
If presented with a rate equation, be prepared to determine the reaction order.
If presented with a graph of the logarithm of concentration versus time for first order reactions (or reciprocal concentration versus time for second order reactions), be prepared for questions involving determination of the rate constant.
Grasp the concept of half-life and be prepared to solve basic quantitative problems.
Be able to apply the Arrhenius equation to interpret changes in rate constant with temperature.
Be adept at inferring the reaction mechanism from experimental data generated by a kinetic study.
Understand the behavior of catalysts in interacting with reagents to lower activation energy.
If you asked, be able to describe the concepts underlying kinetic versus thermodynamic control of various competing reactions.

Activate      



 

Review & Preview

Assignments


Study the outlines of Physics, General Chemistry, Organic Chemistry and Biology available by clicking the links below. Read them slowly and carefully. Try to picture the model phenomena of importance within each area. Instead of the accustomed learning process in which you add new pieces of material to a series of concepts that grows longer each module, think of studying for the MCAT as a planned process of laying down a comprehensive foundation and elaborating a mental structure through repetition and articulation. Be sure you can reproduce each outline on a blank sheet of paper.

Physics

Chemistry

Organic

Biology

Activate      

Goals


Be able to reproduce the outlines of Physics, General Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, and Biology at the main topic level.

Activate      



 

Knowledge Mapping

Assignments


Read the Coaching Discussions associated with the Main Sequence topics of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, Chemical Thermodynamics and the Equilibrium State, the States of Matter, the Physical Properties of Organic Compounds, and Chemical Kinetics. These discussions are somewhat difficult. Don't be afraid to read some of them several times. Start HERE and proceed by clicking 'Next Discussion'.

Activate      

Goals


Be able to narrate the Carnot Cycle in terms of the concepts of Heat & Temperature, Ideal Gas & Kinetic Theory, The First Law of Thermodynamics, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
Pull together concepts of Work & Energy, the Electric Force, Heat & Temperature, Thermochemistry and the Second Law of Thermodynamics to develop a concrete, intuitive sense of the Gibbs free energy.
Apply the concepts of Thermochemistry and Chemical Thermodynamics to understand equilibrium in important examples such as phase change, dissolving an electrolyte in water, autoprotolysis of an acid, and oxidation-reduction.
Be prepared to distinguish reasoning based on the concepts of Chemical Thermodynamics from propositions based on Chemical Kinetics.

Activate      



 

Verbal Reasoning

Assignments


Revisit the WikiPremed treatment of Verbal Reasoning on the MCAT.
Perform Passages 1-10 in Examkrackers MCAT - 101 Passages in MCAT Verbal Reasoning.
Go through the test you completed. Label every question by type in the margin: Main Idea, Author's Tone, Thematic Extension, Specific Inference, or Facts & Information. Which types seem to be giving the most problems? In the ones you missed, how do your chosen answers differ from the correct answers?

Activate      

Goals


Remember the five main types of Verbal Reasoning questions.

Main Idea

Author's Tone

Thematic Extension

Specific Inference

Facts & Information

Verbal Reasoning Tip of the Week
Watch out for wrong answers designed to entice you to answer what your own opinion is instead of the author's. The question prompt will not say, 'according to you'. It will say, 'according to the author'.

Activate      



 

Essay

Assignments


Read the WikiPremed guide to Writing the MCAT Essay.
Arrange an undisturbed half hour to write an essay. Click Here for your essay topic for module seveb. Don't advance to page 2 until you are ready to begin writing.

Activate      

Goals


Focus on how to lean a bit towards either the first or the second essay task to give your essay dynamism and unity.

Activate      









MECHANICS & WAVES
MCAT course 
syllabus module 1
Kinematics
Newton's Laws
Work, Energy, & Power
Momentum & Impulse
MCAT course syllabus module 2
Rotation  
Harmonic Motion
Elastic Properties of Solids
Fluid Mechanics
Waves
FUNDAMENTAL FORCES
MCAT course syllabus module 3
Gravitation
Electricity
THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER
MCAT course 
syllabus module 4
Atomic Theory
Periodic Properties
The Chemical Bond
Intermolecular Forces
MCAT course syllabus module 5
Functional Groups
Stereochemistry
THERMODYNAMICS & KINETICS
MCAT course syllabus module 6
Temperature & Heat Flow
Ideal Gas & Kinetic Theory
1st Law of Thermodynamics
Stoichiometry
Thermochemistry
MCAT course syllabus module 7
2nd Law & Heat Engines
Chemical Thermodynamics
The States of Matter
Orgo Physical Properties
Chemical Kinetics
AQUEOUS SYSTEMS
MCAT course syllabus module 8
Water
Solutions
Acids & Bases
Organic Acids & Bases
ORGANIC REACTION CHEMISTRY
MCAT course syllabus module 9
Nucleophiles & Electrophiles
Rearrangements
Radical Intermediates
Conjugation & Aromaticity
Alkanes
Alkenes  optional
Alkynes  optional
Alkyl Halides
Allylic Conjugation
Aromatic Compounds  optional
Alcohols & Ethers
Aldehydes & Ketones
Carboxylic Acids
Amines
Phosphorus Compounds
Sulfur Compounds
MCAT course 
syllabus module 10Overall Review
BIOMOLECULES
MCAT course syllabus module 11
Proteins
Carbohydrates
Nucleic Acids
Lipids
THE CELL
Biological Membranes
The Prokaryotic Cell
The Eukaryotic Cell
BIOENERGETICS & BIOSYNTHESIS
MCAT course syllabus module 12
Coordination Chemistry
Oxidation/Reduction
Redox in Organic Chemistry
Electrochemistry
Cellular Respiration
Photosynthesis  optional
Integration of Metabolism
GENETICS & REPRODUCTION
MCAT course syllabus module 13
Gene Expression
Cellular Reproduction
Mendelian Genetics
Recombination & Mutation
Molecular Biology Lab
Human Genetics
DIVERSITY OF LIFE
MCAT course syllabus module 14
Viruses
Bacteria & Archaea
Protista  taxonomy optional
Fungi
Plants  optional
Animals  taxonomy optional
Embryology
MCAT course 
syllabus module 15
Tissues & Histology
HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
Nervous System
Sensory Systems
Endocrine System
Musculoskeletal System
Cardiovascular System
Blood
Respiratory System
Lymphatic System & Immunity
Urinary System
Digestive System
Reproductive System
POPULATION BIOLOGY
MCAT course syllabus module 16
Evolution
Ecology
ELECTROMAGNETISM, LIGHT, & MODERN PHYSICS
MCAT course syllabus module 17
Electricity
DC Current
Magnetism
Electomagnetic Induction
AC Current
MCAT course syllabus module 18
Properties of Light
Geometric Optics
Wave Optics
MCAT course syllabus module 19
Modern Physics  relativity optional
Molecular Spectroscopy
Nuclear Physics
MCAT course 
syllabus module 20Overall Review
The WikiPremed MCAT Course is a free comprehensive course in the undergraduate level general sciences. Undergraduate level physics, chemistry, organic chemistry and biology are presented by this course as a unified whole within a spiraling curriculum.

Please read our policies on privacy and shipping & returns.  Contact Us.
MCAT is a registered trademark of the Association of American Medical Colleges, which does not endorse the WikiPremed Course.

WikiPremed offers the customers of our publications or our teaching services no guarantees regarding eventual performance on the MCAT.


Creative Commons License
WikiPremed is a trademark of Wisebridge Learning Systems LLC. The work of WikiPremed is published under a Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 License. There are elements of work here, such as a subset of the images in the archive from WikiPedia, that originated as GNU General Public License works, so take care to follow the unique stipulations of that license in printed reproductions. You can use the resources here for commercial or non-commercial purposes, but please give attribution and a link to the production credits and edit history of the resource. For the works here which began as my individual work, please attribute "John Wetzel, an author at wikipremed.com/classic". *