Module 6

Main Progression - Heat and Temperature, The Ideal Gas and Kinetic Theory, The First Law of Thermodynamics, Stoichiometry, and Thermochemistry.

Review & Preview - A retrospective cycle, reviewing the Main Progression Topics covered in previous modules.

Knowledge Mapping - An extremely important module bringing to fruition earlier work in the fundamentals of Physics and Chemistry.

Verbal Reasoning and Essay - Reading program, exercises, and writing assignment.

Main Progression

Videos

Assignments


Take five minutes to browse the Heat & Temperature Images and read the Glossary to prime yourself mentally for this topic. Make sure you are familiar with basic vocabulary. Perform the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle. When you are ready, click here for the Solution.
Master the Concept and Question cards for Heat & Temperature from the physics flashcards.
Heat & Temperature concepts are treated by Examkrackers in the Chemistry volume. Read pp 46-47 in Examkrackers Chemisty as well as pp 79-81. Solve practice problems on p 82.
Review the Heat & Temperature external resources for each of the subtopics of Heat & Temperature within the Learning Center.

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Goals


Understand the basis of the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scale and be prepared to convert between Celsius, Kelvin and Fahrenheit.
Be able to solve basic thermal expansion problems.
Comprehend heat capacity including specific heat and molar heat capacity.
Be prepared to describe the physical basis heat transmission by conduction, convection, or radiation.
Understand how the rate of heat flow by conduction as well as the rate of heat flow by radiation are determined.

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Videos

Assignments


Browse the Ideal Gas & Kinetic Theory Images and read the Glossary to get a feel for the field of reference for the topic and the basic vocabulary. Reinforce preparation for Ideal Gas & Kinetic Theory with the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle. Click here for the Solution.
Master the Concept and Question cards for Ideal Gas & Kinetic Theory from the physics flashcards.
Read pp. 23-27 in Examkrackers Chemistry. Practice with the questions on p. 28
Finish your Main Progression work on Ideal Gas & Kinetic Theory with a review tour of the Ideal Gas external resources in the Learning Center.

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Goals


Understand the definition of an ideal gas and how ideal gases may differ from real gases.
Possess a clear understanding of the quantities that specify the state of an ideal gas, its volume, pressure, and temperature.
Fluently interconvert pressure units among pascals, standard atmospheres, and torr.
Reproduce the formulas and solve problems using the gas laws including Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, the Combined Gas Law and the Ideal Gas Law.
Strive to understand in an intuitive way what it means to say that "for an ideal gas there must be 0.0821 liter atmospheres for every mole degree kelvin".
Relate the ideal gas macrostate (pressure, volume, temperature) to the behavior of the gas at the particle level as described in the kinetic theory of gases.
Comprehend the relationship between the temperature of an ideal gas and the average kinetic energy of ideal gas molecules.
Understand the relationship between molecular speed and molecular mass for two different gases at the same temperature.

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Videos

Assignments


Browse the 1st Law of Thermodynamics Images and read the 1st Law of Thermodynamics Glossary to get a feel for the topic and its basic vocabulary. Here is the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle for the 1st Law of Thermodynamics and the Solution.
Read pp. 45-49 in Examkrackers Chemistry. Do the problem set on 51-52.
Perform the Thermodynamics Practice Items Here is the Answer Key.
Work through the Concept and Question cards for the 1st Law of Thermodynamics from the physics flashcards.
Close the circle with a review tour of the 1st Law of Thermodynamics resources in the Learning Center.

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Goals


Understand the meaning of 'heat flow' and 'thermodynamic work'.
Explain the First Law of Thermodynamics in clear, simple terms.
Narrate an adiabatic compression or expansion, an isovolumetric transformation, and an isothermal compression or expansion in terms of the First Law of Thermodynamics.
Be able to interpret heat flow, work, and internal energy change for the model thermodynamic transformations of an ideal gas on a pressure-volume diagram.

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Videos

Assignments


Perform the Crossword Puzzle to get oriented a bit. Here is the Solution.
Read Examkrackers Chemistry pp. 10-14 and perform the questions on page 15.
Perform the problems in the WikiPremed Stoichiometry Practice Items. Here is the Answer Key.
Take a review tour of the Stoichiometry resources in the Learning Center.

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Goals


Read chemical equations fluently. Understand the meaning of element symbols, coefficients, reaction conditions, reaction arrows and substance state symbols.
Distinguish empirical and molecular formulas.
Fluently solve percent composition problems.
Answer the question 'What is a Mole?' in clear simple terms. Explain the usefulness of the concept.
Understand how to balance chemical equations.
Confidently solve percent yield and limiting reagent problems.

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Assignments


Browse the Thermochemistry Images and read the Thermochemistry Glossary to get a feel for the topic and its basic vocabulary. Peform the basic vocabulary Crossword Puzzle for waves to solidify your mastery of the basic conceptual vocabulary before proceeding. Here is the Solution.
Read pp. 53-57 in Examkrackers Chemistry and perform the problems on p 58.
Take a review tour of the Thermochemistry resources in the Learning Center. Of the resources, Perdue and especially chem1.com are excellent in this area.
Ensure mastery with the WikiPremed Thermochemistry Problem Set. Here is the Solution.

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Goals


Conceptually visualize the atomic, molecular and intermolecular level within a chemical substance to understand how internal energy changes during chemical processes.
Explain conservation of energy in chemical systems in terms of the first law of thermodynamics.
Understand the concept of enthalpy as a state function and what leads to enthalpy change.
Be capable of using thermochemical terminology to explain the time-temperature graph of the transformation of ice into steam.
Comprehend the importance of Hess's Law of Heat Summation both for intuitive reasoning and practical problem solving.
Appreciate the underlying basis in Hess's Law for the Standard Enthalpies of Formation. Obtain skill in using Standard Enthalpies to assign enthalpy change to chemical reactions.

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Review & Preview

Assignments


Below are the Main Sequence topics we have covered so far in the course down to the subtopic level. They are links to the Exploration Environment. Pretend you have a comprehensive exam tomorrow and this is your last minute cram. You only have a few hours! Click on each subtopic and choose one external resource to browse from the Exploration Environment. Just do a quick browse for a minute or two and then move on. This kind of mental work will keep your understanding fresh by giving a bit of attention to the networks encoding the knowledge you have already built. Attention is the fuel of understanding and retention. As you move from chapter to chapter, be sure to reflect on the organization of the subtopics within each chapter.

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Goals


Achieve a refreshed understanding of the material covered thus far in the course. Hold yourself accountable for having a mental picture of the field of reference for each subtopic. Try to think of the simplest situation describing the phenomena. What is the simple model system for each subtopic?

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Knowledge Mapping

Assignments


Read the Coaching Discussions associated with the Main Progression topics of Heat & Temperature, Ideal Gas & Kinetic Theory, 1st Law of Thermodynamics, Stoichiometry, and Thermochemistry. Start HERE and proceed by clicking 'Next Discussion'.

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Goals


Understand heat flow, internal energy, and thermodynamic work in both the Physics and General Chemistry context in terms of more basic concepts from both Physics and General Chemistry, especially Work & Energy, Momentum, and Electrostatic Force in Physics and Atomic Theory, Chemical Bonding and Intermolecular force in Chemistry
In a conversational way, begin learning how to relate electrostatic potential energy changes in chemical bonding, as bonds are broken and new bonds form, to the enthalpy changes that occur within the oxidative metabolism of glucose forming carbon dioxide and water.

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Verbal Reasoning

Assignments


Two or three times this module, sit down for one half hour and read from the following works in the category of ANTHROPOLOGY. Practice concentrating. Listen to the voice of the writing. Sustain your attention, and don't zone out. This will get easier and easier, as you develop your abilities for mindful reading through practice. Grip down and focus.

accessibleThe Witch-cult in Western Europe - Robert Marett
moderateA Study of Magic and Religion: The Golden Bough, Part VII - James George Frazer
difficultAnnals of the Cakchiquels - A Member of the Xahila Family
 
Let's practice being an MCAT test writer. In this exercise, write a 'correct' and an 'incorrect' answer corresponding to questions following a typical verbal reasoning passage. Pretend you are part of a committee making the test, and your job is to write a 'best answer' and a 'second best' (tricky but wrong) answer. We will do this exercise often throughout the course to help you understand the nuances of the Verbal Reasoning questions. Print and complete this exercise. Click Here.

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Goals


Improve the stamina of your reading attention. Practice sustaining your focus through dense reading material.
Understand the intentions of the writers of Verbal Reasoning questions on the MCAT.
Verbal Reasoning Tip of the Week
Think for a moment after you read a prompt for an author's tone question. Take a moment to think before reading the answer choices. The shades of difference between the answer choices are usually subtle with author's tone questions. Don't let the answers dictate your impression.

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Essay

Assignments


Read the WikiPremed guide to Writing the MCAT Essay.
Arrange an undisturbed half hour to write an essay. Click Here for your essay topic for module six. Don't advance to page 2 until you are ready to begin writing.

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Goals


Understand how to imagine a dialogue or debate as a generative device for writing MCAT essays.

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MECHANICS & WAVES
MCAT course 
syllabus module 1
Kinematics
Newton's Laws
Work, Energy, & Power
Momentum & Impulse
MCAT course syllabus module 2
Rotation  
Harmonic Motion
Elastic Properties of Solids
Fluid Mechanics
Waves
FUNDAMENTAL FORCES
MCAT course syllabus module 3
Gravitation
Electricity
THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER
MCAT course 
syllabus module 4
Atomic Theory
Periodic Properties
The Chemical Bond
Intermolecular Forces
MCAT course syllabus module 5
Functional Groups
Stereochemistry
THERMODYNAMICS & KINETICS
MCAT course syllabus module 6
Temperature & Heat Flow
Ideal Gas & Kinetic Theory
1st Law of Thermodynamics
Stoichiometry
Thermochemistry
MCAT course syllabus module 7
2nd Law & Heat Engines
Chemical Thermodynamics
The States of Matter
Orgo Physical Properties
Chemical Kinetics
AQUEOUS SYSTEMS
MCAT course syllabus module 8
Water
Solutions
Acids & Bases
Organic Acids & Bases
ORGANIC REACTION CHEMISTRY
MCAT course syllabus module 9
Nucleophiles & Electrophiles
Rearrangements
Radical Intermediates
Conjugation & Aromaticity
Alkanes
Alkenes  optional
Alkynes  optional
Alkyl Halides
Allylic Conjugation
Aromatic Compounds  optional
Alcohols & Ethers
Aldehydes & Ketones
Carboxylic Acids
Amines
Phosphorus Compounds
Sulfur Compounds
MCAT course 
syllabus module 10Overall Review
BIOMOLECULES
MCAT course syllabus module 11
Proteins
Carbohydrates
Nucleic Acids
Lipids
THE CELL
Biological Membranes
The Prokaryotic Cell
The Eukaryotic Cell
BIOENERGETICS & BIOSYNTHESIS
MCAT course syllabus module 12
Coordination Chemistry
Oxidation/Reduction
Redox in Organic Chemistry
Electrochemistry
Cellular Respiration
Photosynthesis  optional
Integration of Metabolism
GENETICS & REPRODUCTION
MCAT course syllabus module 13
Gene Expression
Cellular Reproduction
Mendelian Genetics
Recombination & Mutation
Molecular Biology Lab
Human Genetics
DIVERSITY OF LIFE
MCAT course syllabus module 14
Viruses
Bacteria & Archaea
Protista  taxonomy optional
Fungi
Plants  optional
Animals  taxonomy optional
Embryology
MCAT course 
syllabus module 15
Tissues & Histology
HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
Nervous System
Sensory Systems
Endocrine System
Musculoskeletal System
Cardiovascular System
Blood
Respiratory System
Lymphatic System & Immunity
Urinary System
Digestive System
Reproductive System
POPULATION BIOLOGY
MCAT course syllabus module 16
Evolution
Ecology
ELECTROMAGNETISM, LIGHT, & MODERN PHYSICS
MCAT course syllabus module 17
Electricity
DC Current
Magnetism
Electomagnetic Induction
AC Current
MCAT course syllabus module 18
Properties of Light
Geometric Optics
Wave Optics
MCAT course syllabus module 19
Modern Physics  relativity optional
Molecular Spectroscopy
Nuclear Physics
MCAT course 
syllabus module 20Overall Review
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