Module 4

Main Progression - Atomic Theory, Periodic Properties, Chemical Bonding, and Intermolecular Forces.

Review & Preview - Make a second complete survey of General Chemistry.

Knowledge Mapping - The discussions this module focus on developing your ability to use classical Physics to help you better understand Atomic Theory, Chemical Bonding, and Intermolecular Force.

Verbal Reasoning and Essay - Reading program, exercises, and writing assignment.

Main Progression

Videos

Assignments


Orient yourself to Atomic Theory before watching the videos and proceeding with the rest of your assignments. Browse the terminology and images within the MCAT Primer. The Level 3 terminology is required for the MCAT. Complete the basic terms Crossword Puzzle (Solution) and perform an online drill at the Question Server.
Not only for Atomic Theory, but also for a primer on the basics of Periodic Properties and Chemical Bonding, read Lecture 1 in Examkrackers Chemistry pp 1-21 and perform problems 1-24
Read the conceptual chapter for Atomic Theory and perform the Problem Set. Here is the Answer Key for the problem set.
Review the Web Resources for Atomic Theory in the Learning Center. Click specific topics to enter the topic level. The Web Resources are at the Topic Level!

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Goals


Learn the basic apparati, mechanisms and conclusions of the most significant experiments of early modern Atomic Theory including J.J. Thomson's cathode ray experiment, Millikin's oil drop experiement, and Rutherford's experiment with gold foil and alpha rays.
Understand the consequences of Planck's experiment with black body radiation.
Be able to verbally reproduce the reasoning from evidence that led to Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom.
Master the basic description of the electronic structure of the atom in modern quantum theory in terms. Picture the orbitals of an atom. Understand how to use quantum numbers to describe them, the Pauli exclusion principle, the aufbau principle and Hund's rule.

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Videos

Assignments


Before beginning your main assignments, browse Periodic Properties in the MCAT Primer then reinforce your conceptual vocabulary with the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle. Click here for the Solution.
Read the conceptual chapter for Periodic Properties and perform the Problem Set. Here is the Answer Key for the problem set.
Finish your Main Progression work on Periodic Properties with a review tour of the Periodic Properties Web Resources in the Learning Center. Remember to click through the topics to see the Web Resources, which are at the topic level.

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Goals


Understand the rationale behind the organization of the periodic table and how the organization of the table relates to electronic structure.
Be able to define atomic radius and predict the relative sizes of atoms from their position on the periodic table.
Model the events described by electron affinity as well as ionization energy in your imagination. Understand the patterns of change in the energy involved for these events moving from left-to-right and up-and-down across the periodic table.
Clearly comprehend the context and meaning of electronegativity and how it changes across the periodic table.
Be sure to have memorized the values of the electronegativities of the important elements of organic chemistry including carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and the halogens (and some of the alkali metals and sulfur and phosphorus too).

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Videos

Assignments


Before beginning your main assignments, browse the figures and terminology for Chemical Bonding in the MCAT Primerk then reinforce your conceptual vocabulary with the Fundamental Terms Crossword Puzzle over the basic terms. Here is the Solution
Read the conceptual chapter for Chemical Bonding and perform the Problem Set. Here is the Answer Key for the problem set.
The Examkrackers Organic Chemistry book has a decent primer on Chemical Bonding Concepts. Read the relevant subsection in Lecture 1, pp 11-17 problems 9-16
Review the Web Resources for Chemical Bonding in the Learning Center. Click specific topics to enter the topic level. The Chem1 Virtual Textbook is especially excellent for MCAT preparation in this area.

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Goals


Be able to distinguish the differences between ionic bonding, covalent bonding, and metallic bonding.
Understand the forces involved and the story of energy in covalent bond formation. Be able to answer questions like: What holds the bonded atoms together? What happens to electrostatic potential energy when a bond is formed?
Master the traditional valence approach for basic problem solving including the octet rule, drawing Lewis structures, and assigning formal charge.
Develop at least introductory level comfort with molecular orbital theory.
Be prepared to comfortably discuss the concepts of molecular orbital hybridization especially as they relate to organic chemistry.
Understand resonance and how to predict the contribution of resonance structures in molecular forms.
Gain facility in applying valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (VSEPR) to predict molecular geometries.
Differentiate polar and nonpolar covalent bonds. Be able to recognize the polar and nonpolar covalent bonds in a structural formula.

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Videos

Assignments


Although there is not a great deal of content within this chapter, orient with the MCAT Primer and do the simple Crossword Puzzle from this topic. Here is the Solution.
Read pp 16 Examkrackers Organic
Take a review tour of the Intermolecular Forces resources in the Learning Center to make sure you have this important topic down.

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Goals


Be sure you can comfortably characterize the three kinds of intermolecular force.
Develop the skill to predict the type of intermolecular force which will predominate within a substance if presented with the structural form of a molecule.
Understand the role played by intermolecular force in determining the physical properties of a substance and its solubility in various solvents.

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Review & Preview

Assignments


Browse your Examkrackers General Chemistry book from beginning to end. Study the table of contents. Read the bold headings and the formulas. Look at the figures. Get a bird's eye view on General Chemistry. (You can do this assignment just as well using other learning materials, such as those from Berkeley, Kaplan or TPR). By the end of this course you will have a strong imprint of what every page looks like in this book. You want to get as many cycles through it as you can.
Like the third module of the course, spend some time practicing with the WikiPremed Outline of Chemistry. Work until you can reproduce it in full on a blank sheet of paper.

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Goals


Be able to fluently reproduce the outline of General Chemistry at the main topic level.
Understand the phenomena described within each main topic of General Chemistry in terms of the model systems and fundamental concepts discussed.

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Knowledge Mapping

Assignments


Read the Coaching Discussions for Atomic Theory, Periodic Properties, Chemical Bonding, and Intermolecular Forces slowly and carefully. They start a bit slow in Atomic Theory with a few dedicated to items of historical interest, but things pick up in Periodic Properties. A half dozen of the discussions this module are absolutely crucial for this stage of the spiraling curriculum, so don't zone out. Start HERE to begin the Interdisciplinary Discussions of Atomic Theory and then Click 'Next Discussion' until you reach the end of Intermolecular Forces. Keep your WikiPremed Concept Map nearby to visualize the maps associated with each discussion.
Create your own concept maps relating Newton's Laws, Work & Energy, Electricity, and Chemical Bonding and one sheet relating Work & Energy, Electricity, Intermolecular Forces, and States of Matter.

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Goals


Use classical physics to build your intuition of chemistry (even in the light of quantum mechanics).
Model changes at the level of single atoms, bonded atoms, and molecules interacting through intermolecular force in terms of Work & Energy and Electricity. Understand the concept of binding energy in the context of each of these levels of the structure of matter.
Through an understanding of changes in energy during covalent bond formation, begin to understand why the graph of the Electronegativities of the elements agrees with their Reduction Potentials.

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Verbal Reasoning

Assignments


Two or three times this module, sit down for one half hour and read from the following works in the category of BIOGRAPHY. Practice concentrating. Listen to the voice of the writing. Sustain your attention, and don't zone out. This will get easier and easier, as you develop your abilities for mindful reading through practice. Of course, you may want to set aside reading some of the works in their entirety that are quite long.

accessibleAdopting an Abandoned Farm - Kate Sanborn
moderateBoswell's Life of Johnson - James Boswell
difficultHawthorne - Henry James
Again this module, let's practice being an MCAT test writer. Write a 'correct' and an 'incorrect' answer corresponding to questions following a typical verbal reasoning passage. Pretend you are part of a committee making the test, and your job is to write a 'best answer' and a 'second best' (tricky but wrong) answer. Print and complete this exercise. Click Here.

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Goals


Make yourself a stronger reader and grow in your understanding of the thinking processes of the people who write MCAT verbal reasoning questions.
Verbal Reasoning Tip of the Week
As you read a Verbal Reasoning passage, pay extra attention when you run into contrast words such as 'although', 'however', 'despite' or 'nevertheless' because there will almost always be a question coming from that. Take special stock of the content of the author's change of direction or the relationship between any counter-premise and the main idea.

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Essay

Assignments


Arrange an undisturbed half hour for yourself to write an essay. Click Here and the computer will present a PDF file containing your essay topic for module four. Don't advance to page 2 until you are ready to begin writing.

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Goals


Develop in your preparation for the essay component through good technique and practice. In module 2 we discussed how to structure a unified critical MCAT essay. Here is a LINK to that discussion for a quick review.

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MECHANICS & WAVES
MCAT course 
syllabus module 1
Kinematics
Newton's Laws
Work, Energy, & Power
Momentum & Impulse
MCAT course syllabus module 2
Rotation  
Harmonic Motion
Elastic Properties of Solids
Fluid Mechanics
Waves
FUNDAMENTAL FORCES
MCAT course syllabus module 3
Gravitation
Electricity
THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER
MCAT course 
syllabus module 4
Atomic Theory
Periodic Properties
The Chemical Bond
Intermolecular Forces
MCAT course syllabus module 5
Functional Groups
Stereochemistry
THERMODYNAMICS & KINETICS
MCAT course syllabus module 6
Temperature & Heat Flow
Ideal Gas & Kinetic Theory
1st Law of Thermodynamics
Stoichiometry
Thermochemistry
MCAT course syllabus module 7
2nd Law & Heat Engines
Chemical Thermodynamics
The States of Matter
Orgo Physical Properties
Chemical Kinetics
AQUEOUS SYSTEMS
MCAT course syllabus module 8
Water
Solutions
Acids & Bases
Organic Acids & Bases
ORGANIC REACTION CHEMISTRY
MCAT course syllabus module 9
Nucleophiles & Electrophiles
Rearrangements
Radical Intermediates
Conjugation & Aromaticity
Alkanes
Alkenes  optional
Alkynes  optional
Alkyl Halides
Allylic Conjugation
Aromatic Compounds  optional
Alcohols & Ethers
Aldehydes & Ketones
Carboxylic Acids
Amines
Phosphorus Compounds
Sulfur Compounds
MCAT course 
syllabus module 10Overall Review
BIOMOLECULES
MCAT course syllabus module 11
Proteins
Carbohydrates
Nucleic Acids
Lipids
THE CELL
Biological Membranes
The Prokaryotic Cell
The Eukaryotic Cell
BIOENERGETICS & BIOSYNTHESIS
MCAT course syllabus module 12
Coordination Chemistry
Oxidation/Reduction
Redox in Organic Chemistry
Electrochemistry
Cellular Respiration
Photosynthesis  optional
Integration of Metabolism
GENETICS & REPRODUCTION
MCAT course syllabus module 13
Gene Expression
Cellular Reproduction
Mendelian Genetics
Recombination & Mutation
Molecular Biology Lab
Human Genetics
DIVERSITY OF LIFE
MCAT course syllabus module 14
Viruses
Bacteria & Archaea
Protista  taxonomy optional
Fungi
Plants  optional
Animals  taxonomy optional
Embryology
MCAT course 
syllabus module 15
Tissues & Histology
HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
Nervous System
Sensory Systems
Endocrine System
Musculoskeletal System
Cardiovascular System
Blood
Respiratory System
Lymphatic System & Immunity
Urinary System
Digestive System
Reproductive System
POPULATION BIOLOGY
MCAT course syllabus module 16
Evolution
Ecology
ELECTROMAGNETISM, LIGHT, & MODERN PHYSICS
MCAT course syllabus module 17
Electricity
DC Current
Magnetism
Electomagnetic Induction
AC Current
MCAT course syllabus module 18
Properties of Light
Geometric Optics
Wave Optics
MCAT course syllabus module 19
Modern Physics  relativity optional
Molecular Spectroscopy
Nuclear Physics
MCAT course 
syllabus module 20Overall Review
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