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Module 14 in the Syllabus
Curriculum

Viruses Images
Image gallery for study with links to larger teaching JPEGs for classroom presentation

Question Drill for Viruses
Conceptual Vocabulary Self-Test

Basic Terms Crossword Puzzle

Basic Puzzle Solution

Conceptual Vocabulary
VirusA virus is a sub-microscopic particle that can infect the cells of a biological organism and which can replicate itself only by infecting a host cell.
CapsidA capsid is the protein shell of a virus.
Viral envelopeViral envelopes are present in many viruses, covering the protein capsid, typically derived from portions of the host cell membranes but including some viral glycoproteins.
RetrovirusA retrovirus is an enveloped viruses possessing a RNA genome, which replicates via a DNA intermediate.
Human immunodeficiency virusHuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that can lead to AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail.
BacteriophageA bacteriophage is any one of a number of viruses that infect bacteria.
Lytic cycleThe lytic cycle is the one of the two cycles of viral reproduction that is typically considered the main method of viral replication, since it results in the destruction of the infected cell and release of virus particles.
Lysogenic cycleThe lysogenic cycle is the mode of viral reproduction characterized by the fusion of the nucleic acid of a bacteriophage with that of a host so that the integrated prophage can then be transmitted to daughter cells in subsequent cell divisions.
InfluenzaInfluenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae.
Positive-sensePositive-sense viral RNA is viral RNA which may be directly translated into the desired viral proteins.
Negative-senseNegative-sense viral RNA is complementary to the viral mRNA and thus must be converted to positive-sense RNA by an RNA polymerase prior to translation.
Reverse transcriptaseA reverse transcriptase, also known as RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, is a DNA polymerase enzyme that transcribes single-stranded RNA into single-stranded DNA.
ProvirusA provirus is a virus genome that has integrated itself into the DNA of a host cell.
Tobacco mosaic virusTobacco mosaic virus is an RNA virus that infects plants. It was the first virus to be discovered.
Hepatitis BHepatitus B virus is a DNA virus, which causes an inflammatory disease of the liver, that consists of an outer lipid envelope and an icosahedral nucleocapsid core composed of protein.
RNA virusAn RNA virus is one belonging to either Group III, Group IV or Group V of the Baltimore classification system, so it possesses ribonucleic acid as its genetic material and does not replicate using a DNA intermediate.
Hepatitis CThe Hepatitis C virus, which causes an inflammatory disease of the liver, is a small enveloped, single-stranded, positive sense RNA virus.
IntegraseIntegrase is an enzyme produced by a retrovirus that enables its genetic material to be integrated into the DNA of the infected cell.
PrionA prion is an infectious agent composed only of protein.
Severe acute respiratory syndromeSevere acute respiratory syndrome is a disease in humans which is caused by the SARS coronavirus.
Advanced terms that may appear in context in MCAT passages
Endogenous retrovirusEndogenous retroviruses are derived from ancient infections of germ cells in humans and other vertebrates with their proviruses now being passed on generation after generation.
ViroidViroids are plant pathogens that consist of a short stretch of highly complementary, circular, single-stranded RNA without the protein coat that is typical for viruses.
SatelliteSatellites are subviral agents composed of nucleic acids that depend for their multiplication on coinfection of a host cell with a helper virus.
Oncolytic virusAn oncolytic virus is a virus used to treat cancer due to their ability to specifically infect cancer cells, while leaving normal cells unharmed.
Human T-lymphotropic virusHuman T-lymphotropic virus is a human, single-stranded RNA retrovirus that causes T-cell leukemia and T-cell lymphoma in adults.
ReoviridaeReoviridae is a family of viruses such as Rotavirus that can affect the gastrointestinal system and respiratory tract.



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