Integrated SequencePhysics Chemistry Organic Biology

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Reactions of Alkanes

Reactions of Alkenes

Reactions of Alcohols and Ethers


Oxidation-Reduction in Organic Chemistry

Bioenergetics and Cellular Respiration

Succinate is first oxidized in a dehydrogenation reaction (catalyzed by succinate dehydrogenase), converting succinate into an alkene, fumarate. This oxidiation reduces FAD into FADH2.

Fumarate is then hydrated to form the alcohol malate, which is then oxidized to form the aldehyde, oxaloacetate, converting NAD+ to NADH. Oxaloacetate is the form which initial combined with acetyl CoA, so the cycle is complete.

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