Integrated SequencePhysics Chemistry Organic Biology

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Special points of emphasis

Abnormal Psychology

The Chemical Bond

Intermolecular Forces

Functional Groups in Organic Chemistry


The States of Matter

The Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

Chemical Thermodynamics and the Equilibrium State

Reactions of Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives



Bioenergetics and Cellular Respiration

Fats (or triacylglycerols) are uncharged esters of glycerol. In other words, a fat is a glyceride in which glycerol has been esterified with three fatty acids.

The degree of saturation of a triglyceride is a major determinant of the melting point. The greater the degree of saturation, the higher the melting point because the straighter chains allow greater access for mutual interaction through London dispersion forces, thus increasing the electrostatic force of attraction between the molecules. This means that greater internal energy increase is required to separate saturated fats from each other in phase change.

The hydrocarbon chains of a fat represent a more highly reduced form of carbon than in carbohydrates such as glucose. This makes fats very concentrated stores of metabolic energy.


Bioenergetics and Cellular Respiration

Integration of Metabolism

Natural fatty acids almost always have even numbers of carbons because fatty acid biosynthesis involves the successive addition of two carbon units from acetyl coenzyme A. The three carbon glycerol portion arises from dihydroxyacetone 3-phosphate, formed in glycolysis.

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