Integrated SequencePhysics Chemistry Organic Biology

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Special points of emphasis

Proteins

Gene Expression

The primary structure of a protein, the sequence of its amino acids, is determined by the sequence of nucleotides in DNA through the processes of transcription and translation. The 'Central Dogma' is the framework for understanding the transfer of sequence information from DNA to protein. In the eukaryotic model, transcription of DNA produces the primary transcript which is processed further by alternative splicing to produce the final mRNA. Translation of the mRNA on ribosomes produces the polypeptide chain which may or may not require further post-translational modification to give rise to the mature protein. Structural proteins frequently exhibit regularities in their amino acid sequence, but this tends not to be the case with globular proteins.



Reactions of Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives

Proteins

The Digestive System and Nutrition

The two primary direct methods for determining the primary structure of a protein are mass spectrometry and the Edman degradation. The amino acid sequence may also be infered from the DNA or mRNA sequence encoding the protein. A method involving the controlled hydrolysis of proteins. Edmun degradation is acid hydrolysis with N-terminus labeling. The amino-terminal residue is labeled, selectively cleaved, and identified, a process repeated until the sequence is determined. Other methods for protein sequencing involve the use of digestive enzymes selective for certain specific peptide bonds.







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