Integrated SequencePhysics Chemistry Organic Biology

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The Chemical Bond

Nucleophiles and Electrophiles

Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones

Reactions of Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives

An important group of reactions of carboxylic acids begin with nucleophilic addition to the carbonyl group, such as acyl transfer reactions. In beginning with nucleophilic addition to the carbonyl group, they are similar to certain reactions of aldehydes and ketones that also begin by nucleophilic addition to the carbonyl group. Another group of reactions of carboxylic acids are similar to certain reactions of aldehydes and ketones because they involve tautomerism of an α hydrogen. The Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction (α-halogenation) is an example from this second group.







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