Integrated SequencePhysics Chemistry Organic Biology

Web Resources



  click if a link is broken



Special points of emphasis

Nucleophiles and Electrophiles

Reactions of Alcohols and Ethers

Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones

In aldol condensation, the enolate serves as a nucleophile, with its α carbon attacking the electrophilic carbonyl carbon of the aldehyde or ketone form also present in solution. Aldol condensation straddles both of the big categories of reactions of aldehydes and ketones. It involves both nucleophilic attack at the carbonyl carbon and electrophilic attack at the α-carbon.

The product of aldol addition is a β-hydroxy aldehyde or ketone, which readily undergoes dehydration to yield an αβ-unsaturated aldehyde or ketone.




Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones

Proteins

Carbohydrates

Bioenergetics and Cellular Respiration

Aldol condensation is a very important reaction type for biochemistry. For example, in energy metabolism, the cleavage of the 1,6 phosphate diester of fructose in glycolysis is a retro-aldol reaction (aldol condensation in reverse). As another example from energy metabolism, the addition of oxaloacetate to acetyl CoA, which begins the citric acid cycle, is an aldol condensation. As an example from the wider biochemical context, the intramolecular covalent cross-links stabilizing collagen fibers are formed by an aldol condensation between aldehyde derivatives of lysine side chains. As you can imagine, aldol condensation is an MCAT favorite.







The WikiPremed MCAT Course is a free comprehensive course in the undergraduate level general sciences. Undergraduate level physics, chemistry, organic chemistry and biology are presented by this course as a unified whole within a spiraling curriculum.

Please read our policies on privacy and shipping & returns.  Contact Us.
MCAT is a registered trademark of the Association of American Medical Colleges, which does not endorse the WikiPremed Course.


Creative Commons License
The work of WikiPremed is published under a Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 License. There are elements of work here, such as a subset of the images in the archive from WikiPedia, that originated as GNU General Public License works, so take care to follow the unique stipulations of that license in printed reproductions. You can use the resources here for commercial or non-commercial purposes, but please give attribution and a link to the production credits and edit history of the resource. For the works here which began as my individual work, please attribute "John Wetzel, an author at wikipremed.com".