Integrated SequencePhysics Chemistry Organic Biology

Web Resources

  click if a link is broken

Special points of emphasis

Nucleophiles and Electrophiles

Reactions of Alcohols and Ethers

Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones

Under acid conditions, alcohols attack the carbonyl carbon of aldehydes and ketones in two successive nucleophilic additions forming first a hemiacetal, which then loses water to form a carbocation intermediate, to then form an acetal through the second nucleophilic addition of alcohol.

Although we have mentioned hemiacetal and acetal formation here in 'Reactions of Alcohols', it is better to treat the reaction in full depth later in the chapter on 'Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones'.

The WikiPremed MCAT Course is a free comprehensive course in the undergraduate level general sciences. Undergraduate level physics, chemistry, organic chemistry and biology are presented by this course as a unified whole within a spiraling curriculum.

Please read our policies on privacy and shipping & returns.  Contact Us.
MCAT is a registered trademark of the Association of American Medical Colleges, which does not endorse the WikiPremed Course.

Creative Commons License
The work of WikiPremed is published under a Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 License. There are elements of work here, such as a subset of the images in the archive from WikiPedia, that originated as GNU General Public License works, so take care to follow the unique stipulations of that license in printed reproductions. You can use the resources here for commercial or non-commercial purposes, but please give attribution and a link to the production credits and edit history of the resource. For the works here which began as my individual work, please attribute "John Wetzel, an author at".