Integrated SequencePhysics Chemistry Organic Biology

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Module 9 in the Syllabus

Alkenes Mechanisms
Mechanisms and explanations from the Organic Mechanisms Pocketbook

Reactions of Alkenes Images
Image gallery for study with links to larger teaching JPEGs for classroom presentation

Question Drill for Reactions of Alkenes
Conceptual Vocabulary Self-Test

Basic Terms Crossword Puzzle

Basic Puzzle Solution

Conceptual Vocabulary
AlkeneIn organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated chemical compound containing at least one carbon-to-carbon double bond.
EthyleneEthylene is a chemical compound containing two carbons and four hydrogens. It is the simplest alkene.
Addition reactionAn addition reaction is an organic reaction where two or more molecules combine to form a larger one.
Electrophilic additionAn electrophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where, in a chemical compound, a pi bond is removed by the creation of two new covalent bonds.
Cis-trans isomerismCis-trans isomerism or geometric isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism describing the orientation of functional groups within a molecule, typically double bonds which cannot rotate.
HydrogenationHydrogenation is a class of chemical reactions which result in an addition of hydrogen usually to unsaturated organic compounds.
PolymerizationPolymerization is a process of bonding monomers, or single units together through a variety of reaction mechanisms to form longer chains named polymers.
PolymerA polymer is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds.
Syn and Anti additionSyn and anti addition are different ways in which two substituents can be added to a double bond or triple bond.
Halogen addition reactionA halogen addition reaction is a simple organic reaction where a halogen molecule is added to the carbon-carbon double bond of an alkene functional group.
Hydration reactionA hydration reaction is a chemical reaction in which a hydroxyl group and a hydrogen cation are added to the two carbon atoms bonded together in the carbon-carbon double bond which makes up an alkene functional group.
Zaitsev's ruleZaitsev's rule states that if more than one alkene can be formed by an elimination reaction, the more stable alkene is the major product.
RegioselectivityRegioselectivity is the preference of one direction of chemical bond making or breaking over other possible directions.
HydrohalogenationHydrohalogenation is the electrophilic addition of halogen acids like hydrogen chloride or hydrogen bromide to alkenes to yield the corresponding haloalkanes.
Hydroboration-oxidation reactionEmploying borane in tetrahydrofuran in the first step, the hydroboration-oxidation reaction is a two-step organic chemical reaction that converts an alkene into a neutral alcohol by the net addition of water across the double bond.
Halohydrin formation reactionThe halohydrin formation reaction is a chemical reaction in which a halogen is added to an alkene in aqueous solution resulting in a halide group on one carbon and a hydroxyl group on the other.
Oxymercuration reactionIn the oxymercuration reaction, an alkene reacts with mercuric acetate in aqueous solution to yield the addition of an acetoxymercuri group and a hydroxy group across the double bond.
OzonolysisOzonolysis is the cleavage of an alkene or alkyne with ozone to form compounds in which the multiple carbon-carbon bond has been replaced by a double bond to oxygen.
Advanced terms that may appear in context in MCAT passages
Addition polymerizationAddition polymerisation, also called polyaddition or chain growth polymerization, is a polymerisation technique where unsaturated monomer molecules add on to a growing polymer chain one at a time.
CycloadditionA cycloaddition is a pericyclic chemical reaction, in which two pi bonds are lost and two signma bonds are gained.
Ziegler-Natta catalystA Ziegler-Natta catalyst is a reagent or a mixture of reagents used in the production of polymers of alpha-olefins, typically based on titanium compounds and organometallic aluminium compounds.
Transfer hydrogenationTransfer hydrogenation is the addition of hydrogen to a molecule from a source other than gaseous hydrogen.
Prins reactionThe Prins reaction is an organic reaction consisting of an electrophilic addition of an aldehyde or ketone to an alkene or alkyne followed by capture of a nucleophile.
Olefin metathesisOlefin metathesis or transalkylidenation is an organic reaction which involves redistribution of olefinic bonds.

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