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Periodic Properties

The Chemical Bond

Reactions of Alkanes

Of course you need a clear picture of the nature of the chemical bonds within an alkane, the most basic form in organic chemistry. Around the typical carbon atom of an alkane, within single bonds to hydrogen or other carbon atoms, the electron pairs exist within sp3 hybrid orbitals. The axes are directed in tetrahedral fashion. The repulsions among electron pairs are equal, so the bond angles are perfectly tetrahedral, 109.5°.

With little or no or no electronegativity difference between the bonded atoms, the electrons are shared more or less equally. Bonds within alkanes are nonpolar.

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