Integrated SequencePhysics Chemistry Organic Biology

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Module 12 in the Syllabus

Mechanisms and explanations from the Organic Mechanisms Pocketbook

Oxidation of Alkenes to Vicinal Diols
Mechanisms and explanations from the Organic Mechanisms Pocketbook

Oxidative Cleavage of Alkenes
Mechanisms and explanations from the Organic Mechanisms Pocketbook

Ozonolysis of Alkenes
Mechanisms and explanations from the Organic Mechanisms Pocketbook

Oxidation of Alcohols
Mechanisms and explanations from the Organic Mechanisms Pocketbook

Reduction of Ketones and Aldehydes
Mechanisms and explanations from the Organic Mechanisms Pocketbook

Reduction of Aryl Alkyl Ketones
Mechanisms and explanations from the Organic Mechanisms Pocketbook

Oxidation of Aldehydes and Ketones
Mechanisms and explanations from the Organic Mechanisms Pocketbook

The Wolff-Kishner Reaction
Mechanisms and explanations from the Organic Mechanisms Pocketbook

Nitrile Reduction
Mechanisms and explanations from the Organic Mechanisms Pocketbook

Oxidation-Reduction in Organic Chemistry Images
Image gallery for study with links to larger teaching JPEGs for classroom presentation

Question Drill for Oxidation-Reduction in Organic Chemistry
Conceptual Vocabulary Self-Test

Basic Terms Crossword Puzzle

Basic Puzzle Solution

Conceptual Vocabulary
CombustionCombustion or burning is a complex sequence of exothermic chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat or both heat and light in the form of either a glow or flames.
PermanganatePotassium permanganate contains manganese bonded to four oxygens. Often employed for laboratory redox, it is a strong oxidizer with manganese in the +7 oxidation state.
Lithium aluminium hydrideLithium aluminium hydride is a powerful reducing agent used in organic chemistry.
Sodium borohydridePrepared by the reaction of sodium hydride on trimethylborate, sodium borohydride is a reducing agent often used to reduce aldehydes and ketones into alcohols.
HydrideHydride is the name given to the negative ion of hydrogen. Although this ion does not exist except in extraordinary conditions, the term is widely applied to describe compounds of hydrogen with other elements.
ChromateAn important group of oxidizing agents, the chromates are salts of chromic acid.
Hydroboration-oxidation reactionEmploying borane in tetrahydrofuran in the first step, the hydroboration-oxidation reaction is a two-step organic chemical reaction that converts an alkene into a neutral alcohol by the net addition of water across the double bond.
HydrogenationHydrogenation is a class of chemical reactions which result in an addition of hydrogen molecule usually to unsaturated organic compounds.
Oxidative additionOxidative addition is an important classes of reactions in organometallic chemistry in which a metal complex with vacant coordination sites and a relatively low oxidation state is oxidized by the insertion into a covalent bond.
Reductive eliminationThe reverse of oxidative addition is reductive elimination.
Tollens reagentTollens' reagent is usually ammoniacal silver nitrate, an oxidizing agent, which is itself reduced to silver metal. It is used as a test for aldehydes.
ManganeseManganese(IV) oxide is the chemical compound in which manganese is bound to two oxygens. It is often used to oxidize allylic alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes.
Lindlar catalystUsed for the hydrogenation of alkynes to alkenes, Lindlar catalyst is a heterogeneous catalyst that consists of palladium deposited on calcium carbonate and treated with various forms of lead.
OzonolysisOzonolysis is the cleavage of an alkene or alkyne with ozone to form compounds in which the multiple carbon-carbon bond has been replaced by a double bond to oxygen.
HydrogenolysisHydrogenolysis is a catalytic chemical reaction whereby a molecule of hydrogen is added over a carbon-heteroatom single bond, effectively causing a lysis of the bond.
Wolff-Kishner reductionThe Wolff-Kishner reduction is a chemical reaction that fully reduces a ketone (or aldehyde) to an alkane.
Jones oxidationThe Jones oxidation is a chemical reaction described as the chromic acid oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols to carboxylic acids and ketones, respectively.
Clemmensen reductionThe Clemmensen reduction is a chemical reaction described as a reduction of ketones or aldehydes to alkanes using zinc amalgam and hydrochloric acid.
One-electron reductionA one-electron reduction in organic chemistry involves the transfer of an electron from a metal to an organic substrate.
Pyridinium chlorochromatePyridinium chlorochromate is a reddish orange solid reagent used to oxidize primary alcohols to aldehydes and secondary alcohols to ketones.
Collins ReagentCollins reagent is the complex of chromium(VI) oxide with pyridine in dichloromethane. It is used to selectively oxidize primary alcohols to the aldehyde, and will tolerate many other functional groups within the molecule.
Peroxy acidA peroxy acid is an acid in which an acidic -OH group has been replaced by an -OOH group.
Raney nickelRaney nickel is a solid catalyst composed of fine grains of a nickel-aluminium alloy, used in many industrial processes, most commonly for hydrogenation reactions.
Advanced terms that may appear in context in MCAT passages
Rosenmund reductionThe Rosenmund reduction is a chemical reaction that reduces an acid halide to an aldehyde using hydrogen gas over palladium-on-carbon poisoned with barium sulfate.
Cannizzaro reactionThe Cannizzaro reaction is a chemical reaction that involves the base-induced disproportionation of an aldehyde lacking a hydrogen atom in the alpha position.
Fremy's saltFremy's salt is a chemical compound and a strong oxidizing agent. The formal name is disodium nitrosodisulfonic acid the name refers equally well to the potassium salt potassium nitrosodisulfonate.
Swern oxidationThe mild Swern oxidation is a chemical reaction whereby a primary or secondary alcohol is oxidized to an aldehyde or ketone using oxalyl chloride, dimethyl sulfoxide and an organic base, such as triethylamine.
Corey-Kim oxidationThe Corey-Kim oxidation is an oxidation reaction used to synthesise aldehydes and ketones from primary and secondary alcohol
Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reductionThe Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley-Reduction in organic chemistry is the reduction of ketones to secondary alcohols with aluminumisopropylate catalysis in isopropanol solution.
Oppenauer oxidationOppenauer oxidation is a gentle method for oxidizing secondary alcohols to ketones. The reaction is the opposite of Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reduction.
Kornblum oxidationThe Kornblum oxidation is a chemical reaction of a primary halide with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to form an aldehyde.
IBX acidIBX acid or 2-Iodoxybenzoic acid is an organic compound used in organic chemistry as an oxidizing agent, especially to oxidize alcohols to aldehydes.
Dess-Martin periodinaneDess-Martin periodinane is an chemical reagent with multiple advantages used to oxidize primary alcohols to aldehydes and secondary alcohols to ketones.
Birch reductionThe Birch reduction is the organic reduction of aromatic rings with sodium in liquid ammonia to form 1,4-cyclohexadienes.
McMurry reactionThe McMurry reaction is an organic reaction in which two ketone or aldehyde groups are coupled to an alkene in the presence of a titanium chloride compound such as titanium(III) chloride and a reducing agent.

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