Integrated SequencePhysics Chemistry Organic Biology

WikiPremed Resources

Module 9 in the Syllabus

Free Radical Halogenation
Mechanisms and explanations from the Organic Mechanisms Pocketbook

Free Radical Addition of HX to Alkenes
Mechanisms and explanations from the Organic Mechanisms Pocketbook

Reactions with Radical Intermediates Images
Image gallery for study with links to larger teaching JPEGs for classroom presentation

Question Drill for Reactions with Radical Intermediates
Conceptual Vocabulary Self-Test

Basic Terms Crossword Puzzle

Basic Puzzle Solution

Conceptual Vocabulary
RadicalFree radicals are atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons on an otherwise open shell configuration.
Free radical additionFree radical addition is an addition reaction in organic chemistry. The basic steps are radical initiaton, chain propagation, chain termination.
Free radical halogenationIn free radical halogenation, radical substitution takes place with halogen reagents and alkane substrates.
PeroxideA peroxide is a compound containing an oxygen-oxygen single bond.
HomolysisHomolysis is chemical bond dissociation of a neutral molecule generating two free radicals.
PolymerizationPolymerization is a process of bonding monomers, or single units together through a variety of reaction mechanisms to form longer chains named polymers.
Radical initiatorRadical initiators are substances that can produce radical species under mild conditions and promote radical polymerization reactions.
Organic peroxideOrganic peroxides are organic compounds containing an oxygen-oxygen single bond.
Radical ionA radical ion is a free radical species that carries a charge.
Radical substitutionA radical substitution reaction is a reaction involving free radicals as a reactive intermediate in which functional group in a particular chemical compound is replaced by another group.
SuperoxideSuperoxide is the free radical product of the one-electron reduction of dioxygen.
Radical polymerizationRadical polymerization employs free radicals in a process of bonding monomers together through a variety of reaction mechanisms to form longer chains.
One-electron reductionA one-electron reduction in organic chemistry involves the transfer of an electron from a metal to an organic substrate.
ScavengerA scavenger in chemistry is a chemical substance added to a mixture in order to remove or inactivate impurities or unwanted reaction products.
Chain disproportionationChain disproportionation occurs when two radicals meet, instead of coupling, they exchange a proton, giving two terminated chains, one saturated and the other with a terminal double bond.
Chain transferChain transfer is a reaction in radical polymerization by which a radical center on a growing polymer is transferred to another molecule.
Advanced terms that may appear in context in MCAT passages
Free-radical theoryThe free-radical theory of aging is that organisms age because cells accumulate free radical damage with the passage of time.
Wohl-Ziegler reactionThe Wohl-Ziegler reaction is a chemical reaction that involves the allylic or benzylic bromination of hydrocarbons using an N-bromoimide and a radical initiator.
Fenton's reagentFenton's reagent is a solution of hydrogen peroxide and an iron catalyst that is used to oxidize contaminants or waste waters.
AIBNAzobisisobutyronitrile is a toxic compound often used as a foamer in plastics and rubber and as a radical initiator. It is commonly known as AIBN.
Barton reactionThe Barton Reaction involves the photolysis of a nitrite to form a delta-nitroso alcohol.
Bouveault-Blanc reductionThe Bouveault-Blanc reduction is a chemical reaction in which an ester is reduced to primary alcohols using absolute ethanol and sodium metal.
Hunsdiecker reactionThe Hunsdiecker reaction (also called the Borodin reaction) is the organic reaction of silver salts of carboxylic acids with halogens to give organic halides.

The WikiPremed MCAT Course is a free comprehensive course in the undergraduate level general sciences. Undergraduate level physics, chemistry, organic chemistry and biology are presented by this course as a unified whole within a spiraling curriculum.

Please read our policies on privacy and shipping & returns.  Contact Us.
MCAT is a registered trademark of the Association of American Medical Colleges, which does not endorse the WikiPremed Course.

Creative Commons License
The work of WikiPremed is published under a Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 License. There are elements of work here, such as a subset of the images in the archive from WikiPedia, that originated as GNU General Public License works, so take care to follow the unique stipulations of that license in printed reproductions. You can use the resources here for commercial or non-commercial purposes, but please give attribution and a link to the production credits and edit history of the resource. For the works here which began as my individual work, please attribute "John Wetzel, an author at".