Integrated SequencePhysics Chemistry Organic Biology

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Module 9 in the Syllabus
Curriculum

Electrophilic Addition of HX to Alkenes
Mechanisms and explanations from the Organic Mechanisms Pocketbook

Acid Catalyzed Hydration of Alkenes
Mechanisms and explanations from the Organic Mechanisms Pocketbook

Electrophilic Addition of Halogens to Alkenes
Mechanisms and explanations from the Organic Mechanisms Pocketbook

SN2 Mechanism with Alkyl Halides
Mechanisms and explanations from the Organic Mechanisms Pocketbook

SN1 Mechanism with Alkyl Halides
Mechanisms and explanations from the Organic Mechanisms Pocketbook

Acetal Formation
Mechanisms and explanations from the Organic Mechanisms Pocketbook

Aldol Condensation
Mechanisms and explanations from the Organic Mechanisms Pocketbook

Nucleophiles and Electrophiles Images
Image gallery for study with links to larger teaching JPEGs for classroom presentation

Question Drill for Nucleophiles and Electrophiles
Conceptual Vocabulary Self-Test

Basic Terms Crossword Puzzle

Basic Puzzle Solution

Conceptual Vocabulary
NucleophileA nucleophile is a reagent that forms a chemical bond to its reaction partner, the electrophile, by donating both bonding electrons.
ElectrophileAn electrophile is a reagent attracted to electrons that participates in a chemical reaction by accepting an electron pair in order to bond to a nucleophile.
Lone pairA lone pair is a valence electron pair without bonding or sharing with other atoms.
Substitution reactionIn a substitution reaction, a functional group in a particular chemical compound is replaced by another group.
Leaving groupA leaving group is an atom or group of atoms that detaches from a chemical substance.
HeterolysisHeterolysis is chemical bond cleavage of a neutral molecule generating a cation and an anion in which the two electrons that make up the bond are assigned to the same fragment.
Nucleophilic substitutionNucleophilic substitution is a fundamental class of reaction in which an electron rich nucleophile selectively attacks the positive charge of an atom bound to the leaving group which subsequently departs.
Electrophilic additionAn electrophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where, in a chemical compound, a pi bond is removed by the creation of two new covalent bonds.
SolvolysisSolvolysis is a special type of nucleophilic substitution where the nucleophile is a solvent molecule.
Grignard reactionThe Grignard reaction is an organometallic chemical reaction involving alkyl- or aryl-magnesium halides with electrophiles.
Nucleophilic additionA nucleophilic addition reaction is a reaction where a pi bond is removed by creating two new covalent bonds by the addition of a nucleophile.
Nucleophilic aromatic substitutionA nucleophilic aromatic substitution is a reaction in organic chemistry in which the nucleophile displaces a leaving group, such as a halide, on an aromatic ring.
PolarizabilityPolarizability is the relative tendency of a charge distribution, like the electron cloud of an atom or molecule, to be distorted from its normal shape by an external electric field.
Nucleophilic acyl substitutionNucleophilic acyl substitution describes the substitution reaction involving nucleophiles and acyl compounds.
Inductive effectThe inductive effect in chemistry is an experimentally observable effect of the transmission of charge through a chain of atoms in a molecule by electrostatic induction.
Alpha effectThe alpha effect refers to the increased nucleophilicity of a molecule due to the presence of an adjacent atom with lone pair electrons.
Polar effectThe polar effect or electronic effect in chemistry is the effect exerted by a substituent on modifying electrostatic forces operating on a nearby reaction center.
Advanced terms that may appear in context in MCAT passages
NucleofugeA nucleofuge is a leaving group which retains the lone pair from its previous bond with another species.
ElectrofugeA electrofuge is a leaving group which does not retain the lone pair from its previous bond with another species.
Mesomeric effectThe mesomeric effect or resonance effect describes the electron withdrawing or releasing properties of substituents based on relevant resonance structure.
Vicarious nucleophilic substitutionVicarious nucleophilic substitution in organic chemistry is a special type of nucleophilic aromatic substitution in which a nucleophile replaces hydrogen and not an expected substituent like a halogen.



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