Integrated SequencePhysics Chemistry Organic Biology

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Module 12 in the Syllabus

Redox Practice Items
Problem set for Oxidation-Reduction & Electrochemistry in PDF format

Answer Key
Answers and explanations

Electrochemistry Images
Image gallery for study with links to larger teaching JPEGs for classroom presentation

Question Drill for Electrochemistry
Conceptual Vocabulary Self-Test

Basic Terms Crossword Puzzle

Basic Puzzle Solution

Conceptual Vocabulary
ElectrochemistryElectrochemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies the reactions which take place at the interface of an electronic conductor and an ionic conductor.
ElectrodeAn electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit.
Galvanic cellA galvanic cell (or voltaic cell) consists of two different metals connected by a salt bridge or a porous disk between the individual half-cells.
Electrolytic cellElectrolytic cells are composed of a vessel used to perform electrolysis and a cathode and anode.
Electrochemical cellAn electrochemical cell is a device used for creating an electromotive force and current from chemical reactions.
ElectrolyteAn electrolyte is a substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium.
ElectrolysisElectrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them.
Electromotive forceElectromotive force or potential of a body is the work done in joules to bring a unit electric charge from infinity to the body.
AnodeAn anode is an electrode through which the positive direction of electric current flows into a polarized electrical device.
CathodeA cathode is an electrode through which the positive direction of electric current flows out of a polarized electrical device.
Salt bridgeA salt bridge is a laboratory device used to connect the oxidation and reduction half-cells of a galvanic cell.
Standard electrode potentialThe standard electrode potential is the measure of individual voltage of any electrode at standard ambient conditions, which is at a temperature of 298K, solutes at a concentration of 1 M, and gases at a pressure of 1 bar.
Nernst equationThe Nernst equation gives the electrode potential relative to the standard electrode potential of the electrode couple as a function of component concentrations.
Standard hydrogen electrodeThe standard hydrogen electrode is a redox electrode which forms the basis of the thermodynamic scale of oxidation-reduction potentials.
Faraday constantThe Faraday constant is the amount of electric charge in one mole of electrons.
ElectroplatingElectroplating is the process of using electrical current to coat an electrically conductive object with a relatively thin layer of metal.
Half cellA half cell is a structure that contains a conductive electrode and a surrounding conductive electrolyte separated by a naturally-occurring Helmholtz double layer.
Palladium-Hydrogen electrodeThe Palladium-Hydrogen electrode is one of the common reference electrodes used in electrochemical study.
Reference electrodeA reference electrode is an electrode which has a stable and well-known electrode potential.
Concentration cellA concentration cell is an electrochemical cell that has two equivalent half-cells of the same material differing only in molarity.
Primary cellA primary cell is any kind of electrochemical cell in which the electrochemical reaction of interest is not reversible.
Rechargeable batteryA rechargeable battery, also known as a storage battery, is a group of two or more secondary cells.
Voltaic pileThe voltaic pile is the first modern electric battery, invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800.
Electroanalytical methodsElectroanalytical chemistry involves the analysis of chemical species through the use of electrochemical methods.
Galvanic seriesThe galvanic series determines the nobility of metals and semi-metals by submerging two metals in an electrolyte, while electrically connected, and determining the less noble as the one that experiences corrosion.
AnodizingAnodizing is an electrolytic passivation process used to increase the thickness and density of the natural oxide layer on the surface of metal parts.
Lead-acid batteryLead-acid batteries are the oldest type of rechargeable battery.
Advanced terms that may appear in context in MCAT passages
ElectrowinningElectrowinning, also called electroextraction, is the electrodeposition of metals from their ores that have been put in solution or liquefied.
Cyclic voltammetryCyclic voltammetry is a type of potentiodynamic electrochemical measurement in which a voltage is applied to a working electrode in solution and current flowing at the working electrode is plotted versus the applied voltage.
VoltammetryVoltammetry is a category of electroanalytical methods used in analytical chemistry and various industrial processes in which information about an analyte is obtained by measuring the current as the potential is varied.
Copper coulometerMeasuring a quantity of electricity by mass change of the electrodes, the copper coulometer consists of two identical copper electrodes immersed into the slightly acidic pH-buffered solution of copper sulfate.
Redox electrodeA redox electrode is an electrode made from electron-conductive material and characterized by high chemical stability in the solution under test.
Dry pileThe Dry-Pile (also known as the Duluc pile or Zamboni pile) is a high voltage low current semi-permanent electric battery developed in the early 1800s and constructed from silver foil, zinc foil, and paper.
Saturated calomel electrodeThe saturated calomel electrode is a reference electrode based on the reaction between elemental mercury and mercury chloride.
Silver chloride electrodeA silver chloride electrode is a type of reference electrode, used for measuring electrochemical potential, which is the most commonly used reference electrode for testing cathodic protection corrosion control systems in sea water environments.
Cathodic protectionCathodic protection is a technique to control the corrosion of a metal surface by making that surface the cathode of an electrochemical cell.
Differential pulse voltammetryDifferential pulse voltammetry is a kind of electrochemical measurement which can be considered as a series of regular voltage pulses superimposed on a linearly changing voltage, in which the resulting current is measured between the ramped baseline voltage and the pulse voltage.
ChronoamperometryChronoamperometry is an electrochemical technique in which the potential of the working electrode is stepped, and the resulting current from faradaic processes occurring at the electrode is monitored as a function of time.
Cottrell equationThe Cottrell equation describes the change in electric current with respect to time in a controlled potential experiment, such as chronoamperometry.
Betts electrolytic processThe Betts electrolytic process is an industrial process for separating lead and bismuth.
Castner ProcessThe Castner process is a process for manufacturing sodium metal by electrolysis of molten sodium hydroxide.
Castner-Kellner processThe Castner-Kellner process is a method of electrolysis on an aqueous alkali chloride solution to produce the corresponding alkali hydroxide.
Chloralkali processA chloralkali process is any electrolytic process which produces chlorine or a related oxidizer, such as bleaching powder, and an alkaline salt such as sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate.

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