Integrated SequencePhysics Chemistry Organic Biology

Web Resources

University of British Columbia - Acid-base indicators are and how they work
Excellent characterization of the basic chemistry of acid-base indicators.

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Special points of emphasis

Chemical Thermodynamics and the Equilibrium State

Acids and Bases

The color change of an indicator is determined by the effect on the position of indicator acid-base equilibrium by the overall acidity of alkalinity of the solution. The indicator constant KIn equals the hydrogen-ion concentration when the color change is half completed. The corresponding pH equals the pK of the indicator.

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