Integrated SequencePhysics Chemistry Organic Biology

Web Resources

Chem1 Virtual Textbook - Hybrid orbitals: the valence bond model - 1
Excellent survey of orbital hybridization. Clear explanations and great figures.

Chem1 Virtual Textbook - Valence bond model: hybrid orbitals, part 2
Continuation of Dr. Lower's excellent tutorial on orbital hybridization.

Purdue University - Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
The main points of orbital hybridization, a crucial subject in organic chemistry.

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Special points of emphasis

The Chemical Bond

Functional Groups in Organic Chemistry

One very important MCAT context for orbital theory is in understanding the hybrid orbitals of organic chemistry, their spatial geometry and energy characteristics. In forming chemical bonds, atomic orbitals undergo both inter- and intra-molecular orbital hybridization.

Intermolecular orbital hybridization occurs between orbitals of different atoms.

Intramolecular orbital hybridization occurs between orbitals of the same atom.

In organic chemistry, intra-molecular orbital hybridization (sp3, sp2, etc.) plays a roll in determining the structural and chemical properties of the functional groups.

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