Integrated SequencePhysics Chemistry Organic Biology

Web Resources

Chem1 Virtual Textbook - The Octet Rule
Characterization of the octet rule with interesting historical perspective and caveats.

Purdue University - Valence Electrons
Definition of valence electrons.

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Special points of emphasis

The Chemical Bond

Functional Groups in Organic Chemistry

Valence electrons are the electrons contained in the outer shell of a ground-state atom. Along with its electronegativity, an element's valence is an important signifier of its chemical 'personality'. The number of valence electrons in an atom's outer electron shell determines its bonding behavior.

As with electronegativity, you need to have a clear picture of the outer shell electron configuration of the important elements of organic chemistry (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, etc.)

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