Integrated Sequence Physics Chemistry Organic Biology
 Newton's LawsNewton's Laws of MotionNewton's First LawNewton's Second LawNewton's Third LawThe Classical Fundamental ForcesWeightFriction ForceFree Body Diagrams

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Module 1 in the Syllabus
Curriculum

Newton's Laws Cards
Chapter from the Wisebridge Learning System for Physics

Newton's Laws Concepts
Concept chapter for Newton's Laws in PDF format

Newton's Laws Practice Items
Problem set for Newton's Laws in PDF format

Newton's Laws Images
Image gallery for study with links to larger teaching JPEGs for classroom presentation

Question Drill for Newton's Laws
Conceptual Vocabulary Self-Test

Basic Terms Crossword Puzzle

Basic Puzzle Solution

Overview of Newton's Laws
Earlier in Kinematics, we described motion in terms of displacement, velocity, and acceleration. Now in Newton's Laws, we describe the changes that occur to the motion of material bodies in terms of force and mass. Force is the cause of acceleration. Make sure you can reproduce the outline at left from memory. Organizing your knowledge base will help retention, conceptual understanding, and self-assessment.

Newton's Laws on the MCAT
In teaching my course over the years, I have often been asked by students the relative importance of different topics for the MCAT. Although an opinion in terms of the explicit distribution of questions can be fairly straightforward, my answers would tend to go into somewhat greater depth because there is often more to the answer than simply 'what will be on the test'. With regard to the topics of fundamental mechanics, while the basic concepts and classic model problems do directly appear with good frequency on the MCAT, the concepts appear, even more so, indirectly as underpinnings of almost everything else in science. With regard to Newton's Laws, for the MCAT itself, there is the fundamental core you need to come to know intuitively. You need to habitually associate net force with acceleration, for example, or be able to unpack the inclined plane or distinguish kinetic and static friction. But don't leave it at that. Take time and step back. In learning mechanics you are building a foundation for understanding all science.

 Conceptual Vocabulary Force Force is anything that can cause a massive body to accelerate. It may be experienced as a lift, a push, or a pull. Mass Mass is a fundamental concept in physics, roughly corresponding to the intuitive idea of how much matter there is in an object. Dynamics Dynamics is the branch of classical mechanics that is concerned with the effects of forces on the motion of objects. Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton was an English scientist whose treatise Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion. Galileo Galilei Galileo Galilei was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who achieved the first systematic studies of uniformly accelerated motion, improved the telescope and supported Copernicanism. Weight Weight is a measurement of the gravitational force acting on an object. Newton's laws of motion Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws which provide relationships between the forces acting on a body and its movement through space. Centripetal force The centripetal force is the external force required to make a body follow a circular path at constant speed. The force is directed inward, toward the center of the circle. Friction Friction is the force that opposes the relative motion or tendency toward such motion of two surfaces in contact. Coefficient of friction The coefficient of friction is a dimensionless quantity used to calculate the force of friction (static or kinetic). Normal force The normal force is the component, perpendicular to the surface of contact, of the contact force exerted by the surface. Contact force A contact force is a force between two objects that are touching each other. Newton The newton is the SI derived unit of force. Inertia Inertia is the property of an object to remain at constant velocity unless acted upon by an outside force. Net force A resultant or net force is a vector produced when two or more forces act upon a single object. Reaction Newton's third law states that forces occur in pairs, one called the action and the other the reaction. Fundamental interaction A fundamental force or interaction is a mechanism by which particles interact with each other and which cannot be explained in terms of another interaction. Sliding friction Sliding friction is when two solid surfaces slide against each other. Inertial frame of reference An inertial frame of reference is one in which Newton's first and second laws of motion are valid, ie. that is neither rotating nor accelerated. Tension Tension is a reaction force applied by a stretched string, rope or a similar object, upon the objects which stretch it. Rolling resistance Rolling resistance is the frictional resistance that occurs when an object rolls. It is usually much smaller than sliding friction. Dyne The dyne is a unit of force specified in the centimeter-gram-second (cgs) system of units. Fictitious force A fictitious force is an apparent force that acts on all masses in a non-inertial frame of reference arising from the acceleration of the non-inertial reference frame itself.